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    • Nam Nguyen
      Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
      estate pur <=>(or per) autre vie <=>[from Norman French: autre vie,other life] An interest in property for the lifetime of someone else. If A is given property for B's life, A is the tenant pur autre vie and will hold the property during the lifetime of B
      • Nam Nguyen
        Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
        estate owner <=>The owner of a *legal estate in land.
        • Nam Nguyen
          Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
          estate for years <=>Ownership of land subsisting by reference to a period of time. See TERM OF YEARS.
          • Nam Nguyen
            Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
            estate contract <=>A contract in which the owner of land agrees to create or convey a legal estate in the land; for example, he may contract to grant a lease or to sell or he may grant a valid option to purchase. The contract confers on the purchaser an equitable interest that is enforceable against third parties if registered See REGISTRATION OF ENCUMBRANCES. estate duty An obsolete tax formerly levied on the value of property passing on death. See INHERITANCE TAX.
            • Nam Nguyen
              Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
              estate agent <=>A person who introduces prospective buyers and sellers of property to each other. Such a person may be a member of a professional body but must, in any event, under the Estate Agents Act 1979, take out insurance cover to protect money received as deposits from clients. The Property Misdescription Act 1991 prohibits estate agents from making false or misleading statements about property in the course of their business; making such statements is punishable by a fine of up to £5000 or possibly by imprisonment. See also MISDESCRIPTION.
              • Nam Nguyen
                Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                estate n. 1. <=>(in land law) The character and duration of a person's ownership of land. For example, an estate in fee simple confers effectively absolute ownership; an estate for a term of years (called leasehold) <=>or for life are lesser estates. Under the Law of Property Act 1925 only a *fee simple absolute in possession (called freehold) <=>and a *term of years absolute can exist as legal estates in land. All other forms of ownership, e.g. an estate for life or an estate in fee simple coming into effect only on someone's death, are equitable only. 2. <=>(in revenue law) The aggregate of all the property to which a person is beneficially entitled. Excluded property, <=>which includes most reversionary interests and certain foreign matters, is not taken into account for the death charge (see INHERITANCE TAX).
                • Nam Nguyen
                  Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                  essence of a contract <=>See CONDITION.
                  • Nam Nguyen
                    Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                    espousal of claim <=>The action by which a state undertakes to gain redress of a grievance on behalf of one of its subjects or citizens. See also EXHAUSTION OF LOCAL REMEDIES.
                    • Nam Nguyen
                      Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                      espionage <=>n. See SPYING.
                      • Nam Nguyen
                        Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                        escrow <=>n. See DEED.
                        • Nam Nguyen
                          Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                          escape <=>n. The common-law offence of escaping from lawful custody. The custody may be in prison or a police station, or even in the open air. The escaper need not have been charged with any offence, provided his detention is lawful (e.g.he may be detained to provide a *specimen of breath). Nor is it necessary for him to commit any act of breaking out. It is also an offence to help the escape of a prisoner and to permit a prisoner who is detained in relation to a criminal matter to escape. If someone actually breaks out of a building in which he is lawfully confined he commits a separate offence of prison breaking.
                          • Nam Nguyen
                            Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                            escape <=> its proceedings. The decision can be quashed by the High Court in *judicial review proceedings by the remedy of *quashing order except in the case of a *domestic tribunal with purely contractual powers. See also ULTRA VIRES.
                            • Nam Nguyen
                              Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                              ERM <=>See EXCHANGE RATE MECHANISM. error <=>n. A mistake of law in a judgment or order of a court or in some procedural step in legal proceedings. A writ of error <=>was formerly used to instruct an inferior court to send records of its proceedings for review by a superior court. It was abolished in civil cases by the Judicature Acts 1873-75 and in criminal cases by the Criminal Appeal Act 1907and replaced by the modern system of *appeal. error of law on the face of the record <=>A mistake of law that is made by an inferior court or tribunal in reaching a decision and is apparent from the record of
                              • Nam Nguyen
                                Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                erga omnes obligations <=>[Latin: towards all] (in international law) Obligations in whose fulfilment all states have a legal interest because their subject matter is of importance to the international community as a whole. lt follows from this that the breach of such an obligation is of concern not only to the victimized state but also to all the other members of the international community. Thus, in the event of a breach of these obligations, every state must be considered justified in invoking (probably through judicial channels) the responsibility of the guilty state committing the internationally wrongful act. It has been suggested that an example of an erga omnesobligation is that of a people's right to *self-determination.
                                • Nam Nguyen
                                  Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                  equity of redemption <=>The rights of a mortgagor over his mortgaged property, particularly the right to redeem the property. This right of redemption allows a mortgagor to redeem the mortgaged property at any time on payment of principal. interest, and costs, even after the contractual date of redemption, as stated in the mortgage deed, has passed. Any *clogs on the equity of redemption are void, but the mortgagor's rights may be terminated under certain circumstances (see MORTGAGE). Before 1926 a mortgage was commonly effected by the transfer of the mortgagor's interest in the property to the mortgagee, but the mortgagor's rights were recognized by equity. Since 1925 the mortgagor retains legal ownership of the property in all cases: the term equity of redemption is still used, however, although the right to redeem is no longer strictly an equitable interest.
                                  • Nam Nguyen
                                    Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                    equity n. 1. <=>That part of English law originally administered by the *Lord . Chancellor and later by the *Court of Chancery, as distinct from that administered by the courts of *common law. The common law did not recognize (e.g.uses and trusts) and its remedies were limited inscope and SInce It relied primarily on the remedy of damages. In the MIddle Ages litigants were entitled to petition the king, who relied on the advice of his commonly an ecclesiastic ("the keeper of the king's conscience"), to do justice In each case. the 15th century, petitions were referred directly to the Cha.ncellor, who dealt cases on a flexible basis: he was more concerned with the fair result than WIth rigid principles of law (hence the jurist John Selden's jibe that "equity varied with the length of the Chancellor's foot"). Moreover, if a defendant refused to comply WIth 179 error of law on the face of the record the Chancellor's order, he would be imprisoned for contempt of the order until he chose to comply (see IN PERSONAM). In the 17th century conflict arose between the common-law judges and the Chancellor as to who should prevail; James I resolved the dispute in favour of the Chancellor. General principles began to emerge, and by the early 19th century the Court of Chancery was more organized and its jurisdiction, once flexible, had ossified into a body of precedent with fixed principles. The Court of Chancery had varying types of jurisdiction (see AUXILIARY JURISDICTION; CONCURRENT JURISDICTION; EXCLUSIVE JURISDICTION) and many of its general principles were stated in the form of *maxims of equity; equity had (and still has) certain doctrines (see ELECTION; CONVERSION; RECONVERSION; PERFORMANCE OF CONTRACT: SATISFACTION). Under the Judicature Acts 1873-75, with the establishment of the High Court of Justice to administer both common law and equity, the Court of Chancery was abolished (though much of its work is still carried out by the "Chancery Division). The Judicature Acts also provided that in cases in which there was a conflict between the rules of law and equity, the rules of equity should prevail. The main areas of equitable jurisdiction now include *trusts, *equitable interests over property, relief against *forfeiture and penalties, and *equitable remedies. Equity is thus a regulated scheme of legal principles, but new developments are still possible ("equity is not past the age of child-bearing"): recent examples of its creativity include the *freezing injunction and the *search order. 2. <=>An equitable right or claim, especially an *equitable interest, or *equity of redemption, or *mere equity. 3. <=>A share in a limited company.
                                    • Nam Nguyen
                                      Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                      equitable waste <=>Alterations made by a tenant that cause serious damage to the leased property. See WASTE.
                                      • Nam Nguyen
                                        Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                        equitable rights <=>Rights recognized by *equity. See EQUITABLE INTERESTS; EQUITABLE REMEDIES.
                                        • Nam Nguyen
                                          Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                          equitable remedies <=>Means granted by *equity to redress a wrong. Since . range of legal remedies was originally very limited, equity showed great flexibility in granting remedies, which were discretionary: the conduct of the parties, . particularly that of the claimant, was taken into HANDS!. The mam equitable remedies are now *speClflCperformance, rescission, cancellation, *rectification, *account, *injunction, and the appointment of a *receiver. These remedies may be sought in any division of the High Court or, in some the county courts; they are still discretionary in nature, although the discretion IS often exercised on established lines.
                                          • Nam Nguyen
                                            Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                            Herpes Zoster<=> Symptoms The ?rst symptoms are much like those of any feverish attack. The person feels unwell for some days, has a slight rise of temperature, and feels vague pain in the side or in various other parts. Often the area of skin to be a?ected feels hypersensitive (hyperaesthesia) as though something were rubbing on it. The pain ?nally settles at a point in the side, and, two or three days after the ?rst symptoms, the rash appears. Minute yellow blebs – or vesicles, as they are known – are seen on the skin of the back, of the side, or of the front of the chest, or simultaneously on all three, the points corresponding to the space between one pair of ribs right around. These blebs increase in number for some days, and spread until there is often a complete half-girdle around one side of the chest. The pain in this stage is severe, but it appears to vary a good deal with age, being slight in children and very severe in old people, in whom indeed herpes sometimes forms a serious illness. After one or two weeks, most of the vesicles have dried up and formed scabs. The pain may not pass o? when the eruption disappears, but may remain for weeks or even months – a condition known as post-herpetic NEURALGIA. Old people are prone to develop this condition. Treatment ACICLOVIR or famciclovir can be given orally, and are e?ective if started in large doses early in the attack. Later, topical antibiotics may be required. Analgesics may be necessary if neuralgia is severe.