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    • Nam Nguyen
      Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
      European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBR.D) <=> European Commission (commission of the E.uropeanCommunities) <=>An . organ of the European Union formed in 1967, having both and legislative functions. It is composed of 20 Commissioners, <=>who must be nationals of member states and are appointed by member states by mutual agreement (two Commissioners each from the five largest member states -France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK; one each from the remaining members); their appointment must be approved by the *European Parliament. Each Commissioner assumes responsibility for a particular field of activity and oversees the department (Directorate General) <=>devoted to that field (see Appendix II).Once appointed, the Commissioners must act in the interests of the EU; they are not to be regarded as representatives of their countries and must not seek or take instructions from any government or other body. Each Commissioner is appointed for a (renewable) fouryear period. The Commission's executive functions include administration of Community funds and ensuring that Community law is enforced (see EUROPEAN COURT OF JUSTICE). Its legislative functions consist primarily of submitting proposals for legislation to the *Council of the European Union, in some cases on the orders of the Council and in others on its own initiative (see also EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT). It also has legislative powers of its own, partly under the Treaty of Rome and partly by virtue of delegation by the Council, but only on a limited range of subjects (see COMMUNITY LEGISLATION).
      • Nam Nguyen
        Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
        European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBR.D) <=>Anintergovernmental bank set up in 1990 to provide loans for mdustnal and .commercial projects in the countries of central and eastern Membership . includes all the countries of the European Union and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, as well as the central and eastern European countries. The EU provided 51% of the initial capital. The bank's headquarters are in London. European Central Bank (ECB) <=>A central bank of the *European Union to which member states who have adopted *European Monetary Union (EMU) are committed by the *Maastricht Treaty. The ECB was set up in 1998and became .actrve in 1999, as the governor of economic and monetary policy the Union. It worksclosely with the central banks of the states parttcipatmg in EMU. European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) <=>The first of the European Communities, established by the *Paris Treaty (1951) and effective from 1952. The ECSC created a common market in coal, steel, iron are, and scrap between the member states, and it coordinates policies of the member states in these fields. The original members were Belgium, France, West Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands. These six countries, in 1957, signed the *Treaty of Rome settmg up the European Economic Community. See EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.
        • Nam Nguyen
          Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
          Euro Norm (EN) <=>A European standard adopted by European standards bodies, such as CEN (the European Standardization and (the European Electrotechnical Standardization Committee), in place of a national standard, such as those produced in the UK by the British Standards Institution (BSI). European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) <=>The organization set upunder the Treaty of Rome (1957) by the six members of the *European Coal andSteel Community and effective from 1 January 1958. was formed to create the technical and industrial conditions necessary to establish the nuclear industries and direct them to peaceful use to obtain a single energy market. See EUROPEAN COMMUNITY.
          • Nam Nguyen
            Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
            euro <=>See EUROPEAN MONETARY UNION.
            • Nam Nguyen
              Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
              Euratom <=>See EUROPEAN ATOMIC ENERGY COMMUNITY.
              • Nam Nguyen
                Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                EU law <=>See COMMUNITY LAW.
                • Nam Nguyen
                  Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                  EU <=>See EUROPEAN UNION.
                  • Nam Nguyen
                    Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                    ETSI <=>See EUROPEAN TELECOMMUNICATIONS STANDARDS INSTITUTE.
                    • Nam Nguyen
                      Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                      ethnic minority <=>A group numerically inferior to the rest of the of a state whose members are nationals of that state and possess linguistic characteristics distinct from those of the total show, If only implicitly, a sense of solidarity, directed preservmg own customs, religion, or language. The attempted extIrpatIOn of an ethmc mmonty by the forces of the majority within a state (known as ethnic <=>be regarded as a crime against humanity (see WAR CRIMES) justifymg humanitarian intervention.
                      • Nam Nguyen
                        Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                        ethnic cleansing <=>See ETHNIC MINORITY.
                        • Nam Nguyen
                          Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                          ET <=>See EMPLOYMENT TRIBUNAL.
                          • Nam Nguyen
                            Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                            estreat <=>[from Old French estrait] 1. <=>n. an extract from a record relating to *recognizances and fines. 2. <=>vb. To forfeit a recognizance, especially one given by the surety of someone admitted to bail, or to enforce a fine.
                            • Nam Nguyen
                              Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                              estovers <=>pl. n. The right to cut timber for certain purposes from land not in one's own absolute ownership. The right arises in favour of a lessee or *tenant for life under a settlement of the land and it can exist as a *profit prendre. Estovers compris.e the rig.ht .to take timber as: (1) house bote, <=>for repairing a dwelling or for use as firewood m it: (2)plough bote, <=>for repairing farm implements; and (3) hay <=>for repairing fences. In each case the lessee or tenant may take only sufficient timber for present needs and not for future requirements. Estovers as profits prendreare usually *appurtenant. Estrada doctrine <=>The doctrine that *recognition of a government should be based on its de facto existence, rather than on its legitimacy. It is named after Don Genero Estrada, the Mexican Secretary of Foreign Affairs who in 1930 ordered that Mexican diplomats should issue no declarations that amounted to a grant of recognition: he felt that this was an insulting practice and offended against the sovereignty of other nations. In 1980 the UK, USA, and many other states adopted the Estrada doctrine. Compare TOBAR DOCTRINE.
                              • Nam Nguyen
                                Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                estovers <=>pl. n. The right to cut timber for certain purposes from land not in one's own absolute ownership. The right arises in favour of a lessee or *tenant for life under a settlement of the land and it can exist as a *profit prendre. Estovers compris.e the rig.ht .to take timber as: (1) house bote, <=>for repairing a dwelling or for use as firewood m it: (2)plough bote, <=>for repairing farm implements; and (3) hay <=>for repairing fences. In each case the lessee or tenant may take only sufficient timber for present needs and not for future requirements. Estovers as profits prendreare usually *appurtenant. Estrada doctrine <=>The doctrine that *recognition of a government should be based on its de facto existence, rather than on its legitimacy. It is named after Don Genero Estrada, the Mexican Secretary of Foreign Affairs who in 1930 ordered that Mexican diplomats should issue no declarations that amounted to a grant of recognition: he felt that this was an insulting practice and offended against the sovereignty of other nations. In 1980 the UK, USA, and many other states adopted the Estrada doctrine. Compare TOBAR DOCTRINE.
                                • Nam Nguyen
                                  Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                  Estoppel by deed <=>prevents a person who has executed a deed from saying that the facts stated III the deed are not true. Estoppel by record (or per rem judicatam) <=>prevents a person from reopening questions that are *res judicata (i.e. that have been determined against him in a previous legal proceeding). See also ISSUE ESTOPPEL. are two forms of equitable estoppel -promissory and proprietary. The doctrine of promissory estoppel <=>applies when one party to a contract promises the other (by words or conduct) that he will not enforce his rights under the contract in or in part. Provided that the other party has acted in reliance on that promise, It WIll,though unsupported by consideration, bind the person making it: he will not be allowed subsequently to sue on the contract. When applicable, the doctrine thus modifies the common-law rules relating to *accord and satisfaction. Under the d.octrine of proprietary estoppel, <=>the courts can grant a discretionary remedy in Circumstances where an owner of land has implicitly or explicitly led another to act detrimentally in the belief that rights in or over land would be acquired. The remedy may take the form of the grant of a *fee simple in the property at one extreme or the grant of a short-term occupational *licence at the other.
                                  • Nam Nguyen
                                    Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                    estoppel <=>n. [from Norman French estouper, to stop up] A rule of evidence or a rule of law that prevents a person from denying the truth of a statement he has made or from denying facts that he has alleged to exist, The denial must have been acted upon (probably to his disadvantage) by the person who wishes to take advantage of the estoppel or his position must have been altered as a result. There are several varieties of estoppel. Estoppel by conduct (or in pais) <=>arises when the party estopped has made a statement or has led the other party to believe in a certain fact.
                                    • Nam Nguyen
                                      Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                      estate subsisting at law <=>See LEGAL ESTATE.
                                      • Nam Nguyen
                                        Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                        estate rentcharge <=>See RENTCHARGE.
                                        • Nam Nguyen
                                          Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                          estate pur <=>(or per) autre vie <=>[from Norman French: autre vie,other life] An interest in property for the lifetime of someone else. If A is given property for B's life, A is the tenant pur autre vie and will hold the property during the lifetime of B <=>(the cestuique vie). If A dies before B, the persons entitled under A's will or on his intestacy will take the interest for the remainder of B's life; if B dies before A, A's interest thereupon terminates. The interest is a kind of *life interest and an estate of freehold, i.e. it could be inherited; since 1925it has been an *equitable interest only.
                                          • Nam Nguyen
                                            Nam Nguyen posted to the wire
                                            estate pur <=>(or per) autre vie <=>[from Norman French: autre vie,other life] An interest in property for the lifetime of someone else. If A is given property for B's life, A is the tenant pur autre vie and will hold the property during the lifetime of B

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