English dictionary words starting with W, X and Y and Y from page 17701 to 17750


Write, v. i.

1. To form characters, letters, or figures, as representative of

sounds or ideas; to express words and sentences by written signs.


So it stead you, I will write, Please you command. Shak.

2. To be regularly employed or occupied in writing, copying, or

accounting; to act as clerk or amanuensis; as, he writes in one of

the public offices.

3. To frame or combine ideas, and express them in written words; to

play the author; to recite or relate in books; to compose.

They can write up to the dignity and character of the authors.


4. To compose or send letters.

He wrote for all the Jews that went out of his realm up into Jewry

concerning their freedom. 1 Esdras iv. 49.


Writ”er, n. Etym: [AS. writere.]

1. One who writes, or has written; a scribe; a clerk.

They [came] that handle the pen of the writer. Judg. v. 14.

My tongue is the pen of a ready writer. Ps. xlv. 1.

2. One who is engaged in literary composition as a profession; an

author; as, a writer of novels.

This pitch, as ancient writers do report, doth defile. Shak.

3. A clerk of a certain rank in the service of the late East India

Company, who, after serving a certain number of years, became a

factor. Writer of the tallies (Eng. Law), an officer of the exchequer

of England, who acted as clerk to the auditor of the receipt, and

wrote the accounts upon the tallies from the tellers’ bills. The use

of tallies in the exchequer has been abolished. Wharton (Law. Dict.)

— Writer’s cramp, palsy, or spasm (Med.), a painful spasmodic

affection of the muscles of the fingers, brought on by excessive use,

as in writing, violin playing, telegraphing, etc. Called also

scrivener’s palsy.

 — Writer to the signet. See under Signet.


Writ”er*ship, n.

Defn: The office of a writer.


Writhe, v. t.

[imp. Writhed; p. p. Writhed, Obs. or Poetic Writhen (;

p. pr. & vb.
n. Writhing.]

Etym: [OE. writhen, AS. wri to twist; akin

to OHG. ridan, Icel. ri, Sw. vrida, Dan. vride. Cf. Wreathe, Wrest,


1. To twist; to turn; now, usually, to twist or turn so as to

distort; to wring. “With writhing [turning] of a pin.” Chaucer.

Then Satan first knew pain, And writhed him to and fro. Milton.

Her mouth she writhed, her forehead taught to frown. Dryden.

His battle-writhen arms, and mighty hands. Tennyson.

2. To wrest; to distort; to pervert.

The reason which he yieldeth showeth the least part of his meaning to

be that whereunto his words are writhed. Hooker.

3. To extort; to wring; to wrest. [R.]

The nobility hesitated not to follow the example of their sovereign

in writhing money from them by every species of oppression. Sir W.



Writhe, v. i.

Defn: To twist or contort the body; to be distorted; as, to writhe

with agony. Also used figuratively.

After every attempt, he felt that he had failed, and writhed with

shame and vexation. Macaulay.


Writh”en, a.

Defn: Having a twisted distorted from.

A writhen staff his step unstable guides. Fairfax.


Wri”thle, v. t. Etym: [Freq. of writhe.]

Defn: To wrinkle. [Obs.] Shak.


Writ”ing, n.

1. The act or art of forming letters and characters on paper, wood,

stone, or other material, for the purpose of recording the ideas

which characters and words express, or of communicating them to

others by visible signs.

2. Anything written or printed; anything expressed in characters or

letters; as:

(a) Any legal instrument, as a deed, a receipt, a bond, an agreement,

or the like.

(b) Any written composition; a pamphlet; a work; a literary

production; a book; as, the writings of Addison.

(c) An inscription.

And Pilate wrote a title . . . And the writing was, Jesus of

Nazareth, the King of the Jews. John xix. 19.

3. Handwriting; chirography. Writing book, a book for practice in


 — Writing desk, a desk with a sloping top for writing upon; also, a

case containing writing materials, and used in a similar manner.

 — Writing lark (Zoöl.), the European yellow-hammer; — so called

from the curious irregular lines on its eggs. [Prov. Eng.] — Writing

machine. Same as Typewriter.

 — Writing master, one who teaches the art of penmanship.

 — Writing obligatory (Law), a bond.

 — Writing paper, paper intended for writing upon with ink, usually

finished with a smooth surface, and sized.

 — Writing school, a school for instruction in penmanship.

 — Writing table, a table fitted or used for writing upon.



Defn: p. p. of Write, v.


Wriz”zle, v. t.

Defn: To wrinkle. [Obs.] Spenser.


Wro”ken, obs.

Defn: p. p. of Wreak. Chaucer.


Wrong, obs.

Defn: imp. of Wring. Wrung. Chaucer.


Wrong, a. Etym: [OE. wrong, wrang, a. & n., AS. wrang, n.;

originally, awry, wrung, fr. wringan to wring; akin to D. wrang

bitter, Dan. vrang wrong, Sw. vrång, Icel. rangr awry, wrong. See


1. Twisted; wry; as, a wrong nose. [Obs.] Wyclif (Lev. xxi. 19).

2. Not according to the laws of good morals, whether divine or human;

not suitable to the highest and best end; not morally right;

deviating from rectitude or duty; not just or equitable; not true;

not legal; as, a wrong practice; wrong ideas; wrong inclinations and


3. Not fit or suitable to an end or object; not appropriate for an

intended use; not according to rule; unsuitable; improper; incorrect;

as, to hold a book with the wrong end uppermost; to take the wrong


I have deceived you both; I have directed you to wrong places. Shak.

4. Not according to truth; not conforming to fact or intent; not

right; mistaken; erroneous; as, a wrong statement.

5. Designed to be worn or placed inward; as, the wrong side of a

garment or of a piece of cloth.


 — Injurious; unjust; faulty; detrimental; incorrect; erroneous;

unfit; unsuitable.


Wrong, adv.

Defn: In a wrong manner; not rightly; amiss; morally ill;

erroneously; wrongly.

Ten censure wrong for one that writes amiss. Pope.


Wrong, n. Etym: [AS. wrang. See Wrong, a.]

Defn: That which is not right. Specifically:

(a) Nonconformity or disobedience to lawful authority, divine or

human; deviation from duty; — the opposite of moral Ant: right.

When I had wrong and she the right. Chaucer.

One spake much of right and wrong. Milton.

(b) Deviation or departure from truth or fact; state of falsity;

error; as, to be in the wrong.

(c) Whatever deviates from moral rectitude; usually, an act that

involves evil consequences, as one which inflicts injury on a person;

any injury done to, or received from; another; a trespass; a

violation of right.

Friend, I do thee no wrong. Matt. xx. 18.

As the king of England can do no wrong, so neither can he do right

but in his courts and by his courts. Milton.

The obligation to redress a wrong is at least as binding as that of

paying a debt. E. Evereth.

Note: Wrongs, legally, are private or public. Private wrongs are

civil injuries, immediately affecting individuals; public wrongs are

crimes and misdemeanors which affect the community. Blackstone.


Wrong, v. t.

[imp. & p. p. Wronged; p. pr. & vb. n. Wronging.]

1. To treat with injustice; to deprive of some right, or to withhold

some act of justice from; to do undeserved harm to; to deal unjustly

with; to injure.

He that sinneth . . . wrongeth his own soul. Prov. viii. 36.

2. To impute evil to unjustly; as, if you suppose me capable of a

base act, you wrong me.

I rather choose To wrong the dead, to wrong myself and you, Than I

will wrong such honorable men. Shak.


Wrong”do`er, n.

1. One who injures another, or who does wrong.

2. (Law)

Defn: One who commits a tort or trespass; a trespasser; a tort

feasor. Ayliffe.


Wrong”do`ing, n.

Defn: Evil or wicked behavior or action.


Wrong”er, n.

Defn: One who wrongs or injures another. Shak. “Wrongers of the

world.” Tennyson.


Wrong”ful, a.

Defn: Full of wrong; injurious; unjust; unfair; as, a wrongful taking

of property; wrongful dealing.

 — Wrong”ful*ly, adv.

 — Wrong”ful*ness, n.


Wrong”head`, n.

Defn: A person of a perverse understanding or obstinate character.



Wrong”head`, a.

Defn: Wrongheaded. [R.] Pope.


Wrong”head`ed, a.

Defn: Wrong in opinion or principle; having a perverse understanding;


 — Wrong”head`ed*ly, adv.

 — Wrong”head`ed*ness, n. Macaulay.


Wrong”less, a.

Defn: Not wrong; void or free from wrong. [Obs.] — Wrong”less*ly,

adv. [Obs.] Sir P. Sidney.


Wrong”ly, adv.

Defn: In a wrong manner; unjustly; erroneously; wrong; amiss; as, he

judges wrongly of my motives. “And yet wouldst wrongly win.” Shak.


Wrong”ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being wrong; wrongfulness; error;


The best great wrongnesses within themselves. Bp. Butler.

The rightness or wrongness of this view. Latham.


Wron”gous, a. Etym: [Cf. OE. wrongwis. See Wrong, and cf. Righteous.]

1. Constituting, or of the nature of, a wrong; unjust; wrongful. [R.]

2. (Scots Law)

Defn: Not right; illegal; as, wrongous imprisonment. Craig.


Wrong”-timed`, a.

Defn: Done at an improper time; ill-timed.


Wroot, obs.

Defn: imp. of Write. Wrote. Chaucer.


Wrote, v. i. Etym: [OE. wroten. See 1st Root.]

Defn: To root with the snout. See 1st Root. [Obs.] Chaucer.



Defn: imp. & archaic p. p. of Write.


Wroth, a. Etym: [OE. wroth, wrap, AS. wraedh wroth, crooked, bad;

akin to wriedhan to writhe, and to OS. wreedhangry, D. wreed cruel,

OHG. reid twisted, Icel. reiedhr angry, Dan. & Sw. vred. See Writhe,

and cf. Wrath.]

Defn: Full of wrath; angry; incensed; much exasperated; wrathful.

“Wroth to see his kingdom fail.” Milton.

Revel and truth as in a low degree, They be full wroth [i. e., at

enmity] all day. Chaucer.

Cain was very wroth, and his countenance fell. Gen. iv. 5.



Defn: imp. & p. p. of Work.

Alas that I was wrought [created]! Chaucer.


Wrought, a.

Defn: Worked; elaborated; not rough or crude. Wrought iron. See under




Defn: imp. & p. p. of Wring.


Wry, v. t. Etym: [AS. wreón.]

Defn: To cover. [Obs.]

Wrie you in that mantle. Chaucer.


Wry, a. [Compar. Wrier; superl. Wriest.] Etym: [Akin to OE. wrien to

twist, to bend, AS. wrigian to tend towards, to drive.]

1. Turned to one side; twisted; distorted; as, a wry mouth.

2. Hence, deviating from the right direction; misdirected; out of

place; as, wry words.

Not according to the wry rigor of our neighbors, who never take up an

old idea without some extravagance in its application. Landor.

3. Wrested; perverted.

He . . . puts a wry sense upon Protestant writers. Atterbury.

Wry face, a distortion of the countenance indicating impatience,

disgust, or discomfort; a grimace.


Wry, v. i.

1. To twist; to writhe; to bend or wind.

2. To deviate from the right way; to go away or astray; to turn side;

to swerve.

This Phebus gan awayward for to wryen. Chaucer.

How many Must murder wives much better than themselves For wrying but

a little! Shak.


Wry, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Wried; p. pr. & vb. n. Wrying.] Etym: [OE.

wrien. See Wry, a.]

Defn: To twist; to distort; to writhe; to wrest; to vex. Sir P.


Guests by hundreds, not one caring If the dear host’s neck were

wried. R. Browning.


Wry”bill`, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: See Crookbill.


Wry”mouth`, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Any one of several species of large, elongated, marine fishes

of the genus Cryptacanthodes, especially C. maculatus of the American

coast. A whitish variety is called ghostfish.


Wry”neck, n. (Med.)

1. A twisted or distorted neck; a deformity in which the neck is

drawn to one side by a rigid contraction of one of the muscles of the

neck; torticollis.

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Any one of several species of Old World birds of the genus

Jynx, allied to the woodpeckers; especially, the common European

species (J. torguilla); — so called from its habit of turning the

neck around in different directions. Called also cuckoo’s mate,

snakebird, summer bird, tonguebird, and writheneck.


Wry”necked`, a.

Defn: Having a distorted neck; having the deformity called wryneck.


Wry”ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being wry, or distorted. W. Montagu.


Wryth”en, obs. p. p. of Writhe.

Defn: Writhen.


Wul”fen*ite, n. Etym: [So named after F. X. Wulfen, an Australian

mineralogist.] (Min.)

Defn: Native lead molybdate occurring in tetragonal crystals, usually

tabular, and of a bright orange-yellow to red, gray, or brown color;

— also called yellow lead ore.


Wull, v. t. & i.

Defn: See 2d Will.

Pour out to all that wull. Spenser.


Wung”-out`, a.

Defn: Having the sails set in the manner called wing-and-wing.

[Sailors’ slang]


Wur”ba*gool, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A fruit bat (Pteropus medius) native of India. It is similar to

the flying fox, but smaller.


Wur”mal, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: See Wormil.


Wur”ra*luh, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The Australian white-quilled honey eater (Entomyza albipennis).


Wust, Wuste, obs.

Defn: imp. of Wit. Piers Plowman.


Wy`an*dots”, n. pl.; sing. Wyandot (. (Ethnol.)

Defn: Same as Hurons. [Written also Wyandottes, and Yendots.]


Wych”-elm`, n. Etym: [OE. wiche a kind of elm, AS. wice a kind of

tree. Cf. Wicker.] (Bot.)

Defn: A species of elm (Ulmus montana) found in Northern and Western

Europe; Scotch elm.

Note: By confusion this word is often written witch-elm.


Wych”-ha`zel, n. (Bot.)

Defn: The wych-elm; — so called because its leaves are like those of

the hazel.


Wyc”lif*ite, Wyc”liff*ite, n.

Defn: A follower of Wyclif, the English reformer; a Lollard.


Wyd, a.

Defn: Wide. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Wye, n.; pl. Wyes (.

1. The letter Y.

2. A kind of crotch. See Y, n. (a).


Wyke, n.

Defn: Week. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Wy”la, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A helmeted Australian cockatoo (Calyptorhynchus funereus); —

called also funeral cockatoo.


Wyn, Wynn, n. Also Wen. [AS. wen.]

Defn: One of the runes adopted into the Anglo-Saxon, or Old English,

alphabet. It had the value of modern English w, and was replaced from

about a. d. 1280 at first by uu, later by w.



Wynd, n. Etym: [See Wind to turn.]

Defn: A narrow lane or alley. [Scot.] Jamieson.

The narrow wynds, or alleys, on each side of the street. Bryant.


Wyn”ker*nel, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The European moor hen. [Prov. Eng.]


Wynn, n.

Defn: A kind of timber truck, or carriage.


Wype, n.

Defn: The wipe, or lapwing. [Prov. Eng.]


Wys, a.

Defn: Wise. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Wyte, Wy”ten, obs.

Defn: pl. pres. of Wit.


Wythe, n. (Naut.).

Defn: Same as Withe, n., 4.


Wy”vern, n. (Her.)

Defn: Same as Wiver.


X (eks).

Defn: X, the twenty-fourth letter of the English alphabet, has three

sounds; a compound nonvocal sound (that of ks), as in wax; a compound

vocal sound (that of gz), as in example; and, at the beginning of a

word, a simple vocal sound (that of z), as in xanthic.  See Guide to

Pronunciation, §§ 217, 270, 271.

The form and value of X are from the Latin X, which is from the Greek

X, which in some Greek alphabets had the value of ks, though in the

one now in common use it represents an aspirated sound of k.


Xanth*am”ide, n. [Xanthic + amide.] (Chem.)

Defn: An amido derivative of xanthic acid obtained as a white

crystalline substance, C2H5O.CS.NH2; — called also xanthogen amide.


Xan”thate, n. [See Xanthic.] (Chem.)

Defn: A salt of xanthic; a xanthogenate.


Xan`the*las”ma, n. [NL.; Gr. xanqo`s yellow + ‘e`lasma a metal

plate.] (Med.)

Defn: See Xanthoma.


Xan”thi*an, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to Xanthus, an ancient town on Asia Minor; —

applied especially to certain marbles found near that place, and now

in the British Museum.


Xan”thic, a. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow: cf. F. xanthique.]

1. Tending toward a yellow color, or to one of those colors, green

being excepted, in which yellow is a constituent, as scarlet, orange,


2. (Chem.)

 (a) Possessing, imparting, or producing a yellow color; as, xanthic


 (b) Of or pertaining to xanthic acid, or its compounds; xanthogenic.

 (c) Of or pertaining to xanthin.

Xanthic acid (Chem.), a heavy, astringent, colorless oil,

C2H5O.CS.SH, having a pungent odor. It is produced by leading carbon

disulphide into a hot alcoholic solution of potassium hydroxide. So

called from the yellow color of many of its salts. Called also

xanthogenic acid. — Xanthic colors (Bot.), those colors (of flowers)

having some tinge of yellow; — opposed to cyanic colors.  See under



Xan”thide, n. [See Xantho-.] (Chem.)

Defn: A compound or derivative of xanthogen. [Archaic]


Xan*thid”i*um, n.; pl. Xanthidia (#). [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow.]


Defn: A genus of minute unicellular algæ of the desmids. These algæ

have a rounded shape and are armed with glochidiate or branched

aculei. Several species occur in ditches, and others are found fossil

in flint or hornstone.


Xan”thin, n. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow.]

1. (Physiol. Chem.) A crystalline nitrogenous body closely related to

both uric acid and hypoxanthin, present in muscle tissue, and

occasionally found in the urine and in some urinary calculi. It is

also present in guano. So called from the yellow color of certain of

its salts (nitrates).

2. (Chem.) A yellow insoluble coloring matter extracted from yellow

flowers; specifically, the coloring matter of madder.  [Formerly

written also xanthein.]

3. (Chem.) One of the gaseous or volatile decomposition products of

the xanthates, and probably identical with carbon disulphide.  [Obs.]


Xan”thine, n. Also Xan”thin . [Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] (Physiol. Chem.)

Defn: A white microcrystalline nitrogenous compound, C5H4O2N4,

present in muscle tissue, in the liver, spleen, pancreas, and other

organs, and also in urine (in small quantities) and some urinary

calculi, and in the juices of certain plants; — so called because it

leaves a yellow residue when evaporated to dryness with nitric acid.

Xanthine is closely related to uric acid.


Xan”thi*nine, n. [Gr. xanqo`s yellow + quinine.] (Chem.)

Defn: A complex nitrogenous substance related to urea and uric acid,

produced as a white powder; — so called because it forms yellow

salts, and because its solution forms a blue fluorescence like



Xan”thi*um, n. [NL., fr. Gr. xa`nqion a plant used for dyeing the

hair yellow, said to be the Xanthium strumarium, from xanqo`s

yellow.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of composite plants in which the scales of the

involucre are united so as to form a kind of bur; cocklebur; clotbur.



Defn: A combining form from Gr. xanqo`s yellow; as in xanthocobaltic

salts. Used also adjectively in chemistry.


Xan`tho*car”pous, a. [Xantho-+ Gr. karpo`s fruit.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having yellow fruit.


Xan*thoch”ro*i, n. pl. [NL.  See Xanthochroic.] (Ethnol.)

Defn: A division of the Caucasian races, comprising the lighter-

colored members.

The Xanthochroi, or fair whites, . . . are the prevalent inhabitants

of Northern Europe, and the type may be traced into North Africa, and

eastward as far as Hindostan.



Xan`tho*chro”ic, a. [Xantho-+ Gr. chro`a color.] (Ethnol.)

Defn: Having a yellowish or fair complexion; of or pertaining to the



Xan”tho*chroid, a. [See under Xanthrochroic, -oid.] (Ethnol.)

Defn: Having a yellowish or fair complexion. — n.

Defn: A person having xanthochroid traits.


Xan*thoch”ro*ism, n.

Defn: Abnormal coloration of feathers in which yellow replaces the

normal color, as in certain parrots. It is commonly due to lack of

the dark pigment which with yellow forms green.


Xan`tho*don”tous, a. [Xantho-+ Gr. ‘odoy`s, ‘odo`ntos, tooth.]

Defn: Having yellow teeth.


Xan”tho*gen, n. [Xantho- + -gen.] (Chem.)

 (a) The hypothetical radical supposed to be characteristic of

xanthic acid. [Archaic]

 (b) Persulphocyanogen.  [R.]


Xan”tho*gen*ate, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A salt of xanthic acid.


Xan`tho*gen”ic, a. [See Xantho-, and -gen.] (Chem.)

Defn: Producing a yellow color or compound; xanthic.  See Xanthic

acid, under Xanthic.


Xan*tho”ma, n. [NL.  See Xantho-, and -oma.] (Med.)

Defn: A skin disease marked by the development or irregular yellowish

patches upon the skin, especially upon the eyelids; — called also



Xan*thom”a*tous, a. (Med.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to xanthoma.


Xan`tho*mel”a*nous, a. [Pref. xantho- + Gr. , , black.] (Ethnol.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the lighter division of the Melanochroi, or

those races having an olive or yellow complexion and black hair.


Xan”tho*phane, n. [Xantho- + Gr. fai`nein to show.] (Physiol.)

Defn: The yellow pigment present in the inner segments of the retina

in animals.  See Chromophane.


Xan”tho*phyll, n. [Xantho- + Gr. fy`llon leaf.] (Bot.)

Defn: A yellow coloring matter found in yellow autumn leaves, and

also produced artificially from chlorophyll; — formerly called also



Xan”tho*pous, a. [Xantho- + Gr. poy`s, podo`s, foot.] (Bot.)

Defn: Having a yellow stipe, or stem.


Xan`tho*pro*te”ic, a. (Physiol. Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or derived from, xanthoprotein; showing the

characters of xanthoprotein; as, xanthoproteic acid; the

xanthoproteic reaction for albumin.


Xan`tho*pro”te*in, n. [Xantho-+ protein.] (Physiol. Chem.)

Defn: A yellow acid substance formed by the action of hot nitric acid

on albuminous or proteid matter. It is changed to a deep orange-

yellow color by the addition of ammonia.


Xan`tho*puc”cine, n. [Xantho-+ puccoon + -ine.] (Chem.)

Defn: One of three alkaloids found in the root of the yellow puccoon

(Hydrastis Canadensis). It is a yellow crystalline substance, and

resembles berberine.


Xan`tho*rham”nin, n. [Xantho-+ NL. Rhamnus, the generic name of the

plant bearing Persian berries.] (Chem.)

Defn: A glucoside extracted from Persian berries as a yellow

crystalline powder, used as a dyestuff.


Xan`tho*rhi”za, n. [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow + “ri`za root.]


Defn: A genus of shrubby ranunculaceous plants of North America,

including only the species Xanthorhiza apiifolia, which has roots of

a deep yellow color; yellowroot. The bark is intensely bitter, and is

sometimes used as a tonic.


Xan`tho*rhoe”a, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xanqo`s yellow + (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of endogenous plants, native to Australia, having a

thick, sometimes arborescent, stem, and long grasslike leaves. See

Grass tree.


Xan”those, n. (Chem.)

Defn: An orange-yellow substance found in pigment spots of certain



Xan*tho”sis, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xanqo`s yellow.] (Med.)

Defn: The yellow discoloration often observed in cancerous tumors.


Xan`tho*sper”mous, a. Etym: [Xantho- + Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Having yellow seeds.


Xan”thous, a. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Yellow; specifically (Ethnol.), of or pertaining to those races

of man which have yellowish, red, auburn, or brown hair.


Xan*thox”y*lene, n. Etym: [See Xanthoxylum.] (Chem.)

Defn: A liquid hydrocarbon of the terpene series extracted from the

seeds of a Japanese prickly ash (Xanthoxylum pipertium) as an

aromatic oil.


Xan*thox”y*lum, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xanqo`s yellow + xy`lon

wood.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of prickly shrubs or small trees, the bark and rots of

which are of a deep yellow color; prickly ash.

Note: The commonest species in the Northern United States is

Xanthoxylum Americanum. See Prickly ash, under Prickly.


Xe”bec, n. Etym: [Sp. jabegue, formerly spelt xabeque, or Pg. xabeco;

both from Turk. sumbeki a kind of Asiatic ship; cf. Per. sumbuk, Ar.

sumb a small ship.] (Naut.)

Defn: A small three-masted vessel, with projecting bow stern and

convex decks, used in the Mediterranean for transporting merchandise,

etc. It carries large square sails, or both. Xebecs were formerly

armed and used by corsairs.


Xeme (zem), n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: An Arctic fork-tailed gull (Xema Sabinii).


Xen`e*la”si*a, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. (Gr. Antiq.)

Defn: A Spartan institution which prohibited strangers from residing

in Sparta without permission, its object probably being to preserve

the national simplicity of manners.


Xe”ni*um, n.; pl. Xenia. Etym: [L., from Gr. (Class. Antiq.)

Defn: A present given to a guest or stranger, or to a foreign



Xen`o*do*chi”um, n. Etym: [LL., fr. L. xenodochium a building for the

reception of strangers, Gr. (a) (Class. Antiq.)

Defn: A house for the reception of strangers.

(b) In the Middle Ages, a room in a monastery for the reception and

entertainment of strangers and pilgrims, and for the relief of

paupers. [Called also Xenodocheion.]


Xe*nod”o*chy, n. Etym: [Gr.

Defn: Reception of strangers; hospitality. [R.]


Xe*nog”a*my, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange, foreign + (Bot.)

Defn: Cross fertilization.


Xen`o*gen”e*sis, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos a stranger + E. genesis.]


(a) Same as Heterogenesis.

(b) The fancied production of an organism of one kind by an organism

of another. Huxley.


Xen`o*ge*net”ic, a. (Biol.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to xenogenesis; as, the xenogenetic origin of

microzymes. Huxley.


Xen`o*ma”ni*a, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange + E. mania.]

Defn: A mania for, or an inordinate attachment to, foreign customs,

institutions, manners, fashions, etc. [R.] Saintsbury.


Xen”o*mi, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xe`nos strange.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A suborder of soft-rayed fresh-water fishes of which the

blackfish of Alaska (Dallia pectoralis) is the type.


Xen”on, n. [Gr. , neut. of  strange.] (Chem.)

Defn: A very heavy, inert gaseous element occurring in the atmosphere

in the proportion of one volume is about 20 millions. It was

discovered by Ramsay and Travers in 1898. It can be condensed to a

liquid boiling at -109º C., and to a solid which volatilizes without

melting. Symbol Xe or X; atomic weight 130.2.


Xe*nop`te*ryg”i*i, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xe`nos strange +


Defn: A suborder of fishes including Gobiesox and allied genera.

These fishes have soft-rayed fins, and a ventral sucker supported in

front by the pectoral fins. They are destitute of scales.


Xen”o*time, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos guest, stranger + xenotim.] (Min.)

Defn: A native phosphate of yttrium occurring in yellowish-brown

tetragonal crystals.


Xe*nu”rine, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange + (Zoöl.)

Defn: A cabassou.


Xen”yl, n. Etym: [Gr. xe`nos strange + -yl.] (Chem.)

Defn: The radical characteristic of xenylic compounds.


Xe*nyl”ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, derived from, designating, certain amido

compounds obtained by reducing certain nitro derivatives of diphenyl.


Xer”a*phim, n. Etym: [Pg. xarafin, xerafin, fr. Ar. ashrafi noble,

the name of a gold coin.]

Defn: An old money of account in Bombay, equal to three fifths of a



Xer”es, n.

Defn: Sherry. See Sherry.


Xer”if, n.

Defn: A shereef.


Xer”iff, n. Etym: [See Shereef.]

Defn: A gold coin formerly current in Egypt and Turkey, of the value

of about 9s. 6d., or about $2.30; — also, in Morocco, a ducat.


Xe`ro*der”ma, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Med.)

(a) Ichthyosis.

(b) A skin disease characterized by the presence of numerous small

pigmented spots resembling freckles, with which are subsequently

mingled spots of atrophied skin.


Xe”ro*nate, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A salt of xeronic acid.


Xe*ron”ic, a. Etym: [Gr. conic.] (Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, an acid, C8H12O4, related to

fumaric acid, and obtained from citraconic acid as an oily substance

having a bittersweet taste; — so called from its tendency to form

its anhydride.


Xe*roph”a*gy, n. Etym: [L. xerophagia, Gr.

Defn: Among the primitive Christians, the living on a diet of dry

food in Lent and on other fasts.


Xe*roph”i*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Drought-loving; able withstand the absence or lack of moisture.

Plants which are peculiarly adapted to dry climates are termed by De

Candolle xerophilous. Goodale.


Xe`roph*thal”mi*a, n. Etym: [L., fr. Gr. Ophthalmia.] (Med.)

Defn: An abnormal dryness of the eyeball produced usually by long-

continued inflammation and subsequent atrophy of the conjunctiva.


Xe`roph*thal”my, n. (Med.)

Defn: Xerophthalmia.


Xiph”i*as, n. Etym: [L., a swordfish, a sword-shaped comet, fr. Gr.

1. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of fishes comprising the common swordfish.

2. (Anat.)

(a) The constellation Dorado.

(b) A comet shaped like a sword


Xi*phid”i*um, n. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xi`fos sword.] (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of plants of the order Hæmodraceæ, having two-ranked,

sword-shaped leaves.


Xiph”i*oid, a. Etym: [Xiphius + -oid.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of, pertaining to, or resembling, a cetacean of the genus

Xiphius or family Xiphiidæ.


Xiph”i*plas”tron, n.; pl. Xiphiplastra. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a

sword + plastron.] (Anat.)

Defn: The posterior, or fourth, lateral plate in the plastron of

turtles; — called also xiphisternum.


Xiph”i*ster”num, n.; pl. Xiphisterna. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a

sword + sternum.] (Anat.)

(a) The posterior segment, or extremity, of the sternum; — sometimes

called metasternum, ensiform cartilage, ensiform process, or xiphoid


(b) The xiphiplastron.

 — Xiph”i*ster”nal a.


Xiph”i*us, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xi`fos a sword.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of cetaceans having a long, pointed, bony beak, usually

two tusklike teeth in the lower jaw, but no teeth in the upper jaw.


Xiph”o*don, n. Etym: [Gr. xi`fos a sword + (Paleon.)

Defn: An extinct genus of artiodactylous mammals found in the

European Tertiary formations. It had slender legs, didactylous feet,

and small canine teeth.


Xiph”oid, a. Etym: [Gr. xi`fos a sword + xiphoide.] (Anat.)

(a) Like a sword; ensiform.

(b) Of or pertaining to the xiphoid process; xiphoidian.


Xiph*oid”i*an, a. (Anat.)

Defn: Xiphoid.


Xi*phoph”yl*lous, a. Etym: [Gr. xi`fos sword + (Bot.)

Defn: Having sword-shaped leaves.


Xiph`o*su”ra, n. pl.

Defn: See Xiphura.


Xi*phu”ra, n. pl. Etym: [NL., from Gr. xi`fos sword + (Zoöl.)

Defn: Same as Limuloidea. Called also Xiphosura. X ray. See under



XP. [Belongs here in appearance only.]

Defn: The first two letters of the Greek word XRISTOS, Christ; — an

abbreviation used with the letters separate or, oftener, in a

monogram, often inclosed in a circle, as a symbol or emblem of

Christ. It use as an emblem was introduced by Constantine the Great,

whence it is known as the Constantinian symbol, or monogram. See



X rays, or X”-rays`, n. pl.

Defn: The Röntgen rays; — so called by their discoverer because of

their enigmatical character.


X”-ray” tube. (Physics)

Defn: A vacuum tube suitable for producing Röntgen rays.


Xy*lam”ide, n. Etym: [Xylic + amide.] (Chem.)

Defn: An acid amide derivative of xylic acid, obtained as a white

crystalline substance.


Xy”lan, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A gummy substance of the pentosan class, present in woody

tissue, and yielding xylose on hydrolysis; wood gum.


Xy*lan”thrax, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood +

Defn: Wood coal, or charcoal; — so called in distinction from

mineral coal.


Xy”late, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A salt of xylic acid.


Xy”lem, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Bot.)

Defn: That portion of a fibrovascular bundle which has developed, or

will develop, into wood cells; — distinguished from phloëm.


Xy”lene, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Chem.)

Defn: Any of a group of three metameric hydrocarbons of the aromatic

series, found in coal and wood tar, and so named because found in

crude wood spirit. They are colorless, oily, inflammable liquids,

C6H4.(CH3)2, being dimethyl benzenes, and are called respectively

orthoxylene, metaxylene, and paraxylene. Called also xylol.

Note: Each of these xylenes is the nucleus and prototype of a

distinct series of compounds.


Xy”le*nol, n. Etym: [Xylene + -ol.] (Chem.)

Defn: Any one of six metameric phenol derivatives of xylene, obtained

as crystalline substances, (CH3)2.C6H3.OH.


Xy*let”ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, a complex acid related to

mesitylenic acid, obtained as a white crystalline substance by the

action of sodium and carbon dioxide on crude xylenol.


Xy”lic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, derived from, or related to, xylene;

specifically, designating any one of several metameric acids produced

by the partial oxidation of mesitylene and pseudo-cumene.


Xy*lid”ic, a. (Chem.)

Defn: Pertaining to, or designating, either one of two distinct acids

which are derived from xylic acid and related compounds, and are

metameric with uvitic acid.


Xy”li*dine, n. (Chem.)

Defn: Any one of six metameric hydrocarbons, (CH3)2.C6H3.NH2,

resembling aniline, and related to xylene. They are liquids, or

easily fusible crystalline substances, of which three are derived

from metaxylene, two from orthoxylene, and one from paraxylene. They

are called the amido xylenes.

Note: The xylidine of commerce, used in making certain dyes, consists

chiefly of the derivatives of paraxylene and metaxylene.


Xy*lin”de*in, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A green or blue pigment produced by Peziza in certain kinds of

decayed wood, as the beech, oak, birch, etc., and extracted as an

amorphous powder resembling indigo.


Xy”lite, n. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood.] (Chem.)

Defn: A liquid hydrocarbon found in crude wood spirits.


Xy”li*tone, n. (Chem.)

Defn: A yellow oil having a geraniumlike odor, produced as a side

product in making phorone; — called also xylite oil.



Defn: A combining form from Gr. xy`lon wood; as in xylogen,



Xy`lo*bal”sa*mum, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xy`lon wood + xylobalsamum

balsam wood, Gr. (Med.)

Defn: The dried twigs of a Syrian tree (Balsamodendron Gileadense).

U. S. Disp.


Xy`lo*car”pous, a. Etym: [Xylo- + Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: Bearing fruit which becomes hard or woody.


Xy*loc”o*pa, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xy`lon wood + (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of hymenopterous insects including the carpenter. See

Carpenter bee, under Carpenter.

 — Xy*loc”o*pine, a.


Xy”lo*gen, n. Etym: [Xylo- + -gen.]

(a) (Bot.) Nascent wood; wood cells in a forming state.

(b) Lignin.


Xy”lo*graph, n. Etym: [Xylo- + -graph.]

Defn: An engraving on wood, or the impression from such an engraving;

a print by xylography.


Xy*log”ra*pher, n.

Defn: One who practices xylography.


Xy`lo*graph”ic, Xy`lo*graph”ic*al, a. Etym: [Cf. F. xylographique.]

Defn: Of or pertaining to xylography, or wood engraving.


Xy*log”ra*phy, n. Etym: [Xylo- + -graphy: cf. F. xylographie.]

1. The art of engraving on wood.

2. The art of making prints from the natural grain of wood. Knight.

3. A method pf printing in colors upon wood for purposes of house

decoration. Ure.


Xy”loid, a. Etym: [Xylo- + -oid.]

Defn: Resembling wood; having the nature of wood.


Xy*loid”in, n. Etym: [Xylo- + -oid.] (Chem.)

Defn: A substance resembling pyroxylin, obtained by the action of

nitric acid on starch; — called also nitramidin.


Xy”lol, n. Etym: [Xylo- + L. oleum oil.] (Chem.)

Defn: Same as Xylene.


Xy*lol”o*gy, n. [Pref. xylo-+ -logy.]

Defn: The branch of dendrology treating of the gross and minute

structure of wood.


Xy”lon*ite, n.

Defn: See Zylonite.


Xy*loph”a*ga, n. Etym: [NL. See Xylophagous.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of marine bivalves which bore holes in wood. They are

allied to Pholas.


Xy*loph”a*gan, n. Etym: [See Xylophagous.] (Zoöl.)

(a) One of a tribe of beetles whose larvæ bore or live in wood.

(b) Any species of Xylophaga.

(c) Any one of the Xylophagides.


Xy`lo*phag”i*des, n. pl. Etym: [See Xylophagous.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A tribe or family of dipterous flies whose larvæ live in

decayed wood. Some of the tropical species are very large.


Xy*loph”a*gous, a. Etym: [Gr. xy`lon wood + (Zoöl.)

(a) Eating, boring in, or destroying, wood; — said especially of

certain insect larvæ, crustaceans, and mollusks.

(b) Of or pertaining to the genus Xylophaga.


Xy*loph”i*lan, n. Etym: [See Xylophilous.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: One of a tribe of beetles (Xylophili) whose larvæ live on

decayed wood.


Xy*loph”i*lous, a. Etym: [Xylo- + Gr. filei^n to love.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to the xylophilans.


Xy”lo*phone, n. Etym: [Xylo- + Gr. fwnh` sound.]

1. (Mus.)

Defn: An instrument common among the Russians, Poles, and Tartars,

consisting of a series of strips of wood or glass graduated in length

to the musical scale, resting on belts of straw, and struck with two

small hammers. Called in Germany strohfiedel, or straw fiddle.

2. An instrument to determine the vibrative properties of different

kinds of wood. Knight.


Xy`lo*plas”tic, a. Etym: [Xylo- + -plastic.] (Technol.)

Defn: Formed of wood pulp by molds; relating to casts made of wood

pulp in molds.


Xy`lo*py*rog”ra*phy. n. Etym: [Xylo- + Gr. -graphy.]

Defn: The art or practice of burning pictures on wood with a hot

iron; — called also poker painting. See Poker picture, under Poker.


Xy`lo*qui”none, n. Etym: [Xylene + quinone.] (Chem.)

Defn: Any one of a group of quinone compounds obtained respectively

by the oxidation of certain xylidine compounds. In general they are

yellow crystalline substances.


Xy*lor”cin, n. Etym: [Xylene + orcin.] (Chem.)

Defn: A derivative of xylene obtained as a white crystalline

substance which on exposure in the air becomes red; — called also



Xy”lose, n. [Pref. xylo- + -ose.] (Chem.)

Defn: An unfermentable sugar of the pentose class, C5H10O5, formed by

the hydrolysis of xylan; wood sugar.


Xy*los”te*in, n. Etym: [Xylo- + Gr. (Chem.)

Defn: A glucoside found in the poisonous berries of a species of

honeysuckle (Lonicera xylosteum), and extracted as a bitter, white,

crystalline substance.


Xy”lo*tile, n.

Defn: Same as Parkesine.


Xy*lot”o*mist, n.

Defn: One versed or engaged in xylotomy.


Xy*lot”o*mous, a. [Pref. xylo-+ root of Gr.  to cut.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: Capable of boring or cutting wood; — said of many insects.


Xy*lot”o*my, n. [Pref. xylo-+ -tomy.]

Defn: Art of preparing sections (transverse, tangential, or radial)

of wood, esp. by means of a microtome, for microscopic examination.


Xy*lo”try*a, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. xy`lon wood + (Zoöl.)

Defn: A genus of marine bivalves closely allied to Teredo, and

equally destructive to timber. One species (Xylotrya fimbriata) is

very common on the Atlantic coast of the United States.


Xy”lyl, n. Etym: [Xylo- + -yl.] (Chem.)

Defn: Any one of three metameric radicals which are characteristic

respectively of the three xylenes.


Xy”lyl*ene, n. (Chem.)

Defn: Any one of three metameric radicals, CH2.C6H4.CH2, derived

respectively from the three xylenes. Often used adjectively; as,

xylylene alcohol.


Xyr`i*da”ceous, a. (Bot.)

Defn: Of or pertaining to a natural order (Xyrideæ) of endogenous

plants, of which Xyris is the type.


Xy”ris, n. Etym: [L., a kind of Iris, Gr. (Bot.)

Defn: A genus of endogenous herbs with grassy leaves and small yellow

flowers in short, scaly-bracted spikes; yellow-eyed grass. There are

about seventeen species in the Atlantic United States.


Xyst, Xys”tus, n. Etym: [L. xystus, Gr. (Anc. Arch.)

Defn: A long and open portico, for athletic exercises, as wrestling,

running, etc., for use in winter or in stormy weather.


Xyst”arch, n. Etym: [L. xystarches, Gr. (Gr. Antiq.)

Defn: An office Dr. W. Smith.


Xys”ter, n. Etym: [NL., fr. Gr. (Surg.)

Defn: An instrument for scraping bone.


Defn: Y, the twenty-fifth letter of the English alphabet, at the

beginning of a word or syllable, except when a prefix (see Y-), is

usually a fricative vocal consonant; as a prefix, and usually in the

middle or at the end of a syllable, it is a vowel. See Guide to

Pronunciation, §§ 145, 178-9, 272.

Note: It derives its form from the Latin Y, which is from the Greek

u, i, o, and j. g; as in full, fill, AS. fyllan; E. crypt, grotto;

young, juvenile; day, AS. dæg. See U, I, and J, G.

Note: Y has been called the Pythagorean letter, because the Greek



Y, n.; pl. Y’s ( or Ys.

Defn: Something shaped like the letter Y; a forked piece resembling

in form the letter Y. Specifically:

(a) One of the forked holders for supporting the telescope of a

leveling instrument, or the axis of a theodolite; a wye.

(b) A forked or bifurcated pipe fitting.

(c) (Railroads) A portion of track consisting of two diverging tracks

connected by a cross track. Y level (Surv.), an instrument for

measuring differences of level by means of a telescope resting in


 — Y moth (Zoöl.), a handsome European noctuid moth Plusia gamma)

which has a bright, silvery mark, shaped like the letter Y, on each

of the fore wings. Its larva, which is green with five dorsal white

species, feeds on the cabbage, turnip, bean, etc. Called also gamma

moth, and silver Y.


Y, pron.

Defn: I. [Obs.] King Horn. Wyclif.

Y-; I-

Y-, or I-. Etym: [OE. y-, i-, AS. ge-, akin to D. & G. ge-, OHG. gi-,

ga-, Goth. ga-, and perhaps to Latin con-; originally meaning,

together. Cf. Com-, Aware, Enough, Handiwork, Ywis.]

Defn: A prefix of obscure meaning, originally used with verbs,

adverbs, adjectives, nouns, and pronouns. In the Middle English

period, it was little employed except with verbs, being chiefly used

with past participles, though occasionally with the infinitive

Ycleped, or yclept, is perhaps the only word not entirely obsolete

which shows this use.

That no wight mighte it see neither yheere. Chaucer.

Neither to ben yburied nor ybrent. Chaucer.

Note: Some examples of Chaucer’s use of this prefix are; ibe, ibeen,

icaught, ycome, ydo, idoon, ygo, iproved, ywrought. It inough,

enough, it is combined with an adjective. Other examples are in the

Vocabulary. Spenser and later writers frequently employed this prefix

when affecting an archaic style, and sometimes used it incorrectly.


Ya, adv.

Defn: Yea. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Yac”a*re`, n. Etym: [See Jacare.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A South American crocodilian (Jacare sclerops) resembling the

alligator in size and habits. The eye orbits are connected together,

and surrounded by prominent bony ridges. Called also spectacled

alligator, and spectacled cayman. [Written also jacare.]

Note: The name is also applied to allied species.


Yac”ca, n. (Bot.)

Defn: A West Indian name for two large timber trees (Podocarpus

coriaceus, and P. Purdicanus) of the Yew family. The wood, which is

much used, is pale brownish with darker streaks.


Yacht, n. Etym: [D. jagt, jacht; perhaps properly, a jagen to chase,

hunt, akin to G. jagen, OHG. jag, of uncertain origin; or perhaps

akin to OHG. gahi quick, sudden (cf. Gay).] (Naut.)

Defn: A light and elegantly furnished vessel, used either for private

parties of pleasure, or as a vessel of state to convey distinguished

persons from one place to another; a seagoing vessel used only for

pleasure trips, racing, etc. Yacht measurement. See the Note under

Tonnage, 4.


Yacht, v. i.

Defn: To manage a yacht; to voyage in a yacht.


Yacht”er, n.

Defn: One engaged in sailing a jacht.


Yacht”ing, n.

Defn: Sailing for pleasure in a yacht.


Yacht”man, n.

Defn: See Yachtsman.


Yachts”man, n.; pl. Yachtsmen (.

Defn: One who owns or sails a yacht; a yachter.


Yaf, obs. imp. of Give. Etym: [AS. geaf, imp. of giefan to give. See


Defn: Gave. See Give. Chaucer.


Yaf”fin*gale, n. Etym: [See Yaffle, and cf. Nightingale.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The yaffle. [Prov. Eng.]


Yaf”fle, n. Etym: [Probably imitative of its call or cry.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The European green woodpecker (Picus, or Genius, viridis). It

is noted for its loud laughlike note. Called also eccle, hewhole,

highhoe, laughing bird, popinjay, rain bird, yaffil, yaffler,

yaffingale, yappingale, yackel, and woodhack.


Ya”ger, n. Etym: [G. jäger a hunter, from jagen to chase, hunt.]


Defn: In the German army, one belonging to a body of light infantry

armed with rifles, resembling the chasseur of the French army.

[Written also jager.]


Ya`gua*run”di, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Same as Jaguarondi. [Written also yaguarondi, and yagouarondi.]


Ya”hoo, n.

1. One of a race of filthy brutes in Swift’s “Gulliver’s Travels.”

See in the Dictionary of Noted Names in Fiction.

2.  Hence, any brutish or vicious character.

3.  A raw countryman; a lout; a greenhorn. [U. S.]


Yah”weh, Yah”we, n. Also Jah”veh, Jah”ve, etc.

Defn: A modern transliteration of the Hebrew word translated Jehovah

in the Bible; — used by some critics to discriminate the tribal god

of the ancient Hebrews from the Christian Jehovah. Yahweh or Yahwe is

the spelling now generally adopted by scholars.


Yah”wism, n. Also Jah”vism.

1. The religion or worship of Yahweh (Jehovah), or the system of

doctrines, etc., connected with it.

2.  Use of Yahweh as a name of God.


Yah”wist, n. Also Jah”vist, Jah”wist, older Je*ho”vist.

Defn: The author of the passages of the Old Testament, esp. those of

the Hexateuch, in which God is styled Yahweh, or Jehovah; the author

of the Yahwistic, or Jehovistic, Prophetic Document (J); also, the

document itself.


Yaj”ur-Ve”da, n. Etym: [Skr. yajur-v.]

Defn: See Veda.


Yak, n. Etym: [Thibetan gyag.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A bovine mammal (Poëphagus grunnies) native of the high plains

of Central Asia. Its neck, the outer side of its legs, and its

flanks, are covered with long, flowing, fine hair. Its tail is long

and bushy, often white, and is valued as an ornament and for other

purposes in India and China. There are several domesticated

varieties, some of which lack the mane and the long hair on the

flanks. Called also chauri gua, grunting cow, grunting ox, sarlac,

sarlik, and sarluc. Yak lace, a coarse pillow lace made from the

silky hair of the yak.


Yak”a*milk, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: See Trumpeter, 3 (a).


Yak”a*re`, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Same as Yacare.


Ya”kin, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: A large Asiatic antelope (Budorcas taxicolor) native of the

higher parts of the Himalayas and other lofty mountains. Its head and

neck resemble those of the ox, and its tail is like that of the goat.

Called also budorcas.


Ya*koots”, n. pl.; sing. Yakoot (.

Defn: (Ethnol.) A nomadic Mongolian tribe native of Northern Siberia,

and supposed to be of Turkish stock. They are mainly pastoral in

their habits. [Written also Yakuts.]


Yak”sha, n. Etym: [Skr.] (Hindoo Myth.)

Defn: A kind of demigod attendant on Kuvera, the god of wealth.


Ya*kut”, n.

Defn: The Turkish language of the Yakuts, a Mongolian people of

northeastern Siberia, which is lingua franca over much of eastern



Ya”lah, n.

Defn: The oil of the mahwa tree.


Yam, n. Etym: [Pg. inhame, probably from some native name.] (Bot.)

Defn: A large, esculent, farinaceous tuber of various climbing plants

of the genus Dioscorea; also, the plants themselves. Mostly natives

of warm climates. The plants have netted-veined, petioled leaves, and

pods with three broad wings. The commonest species is D. sativa, but

several others are cultivated. Chinese yam, a plant (Dioscorea

Batatas) with a long and slender tuber, hardier than most of the

other species.

 — Wild yam. (a) A common plant (Dioscorea villosa) of the Eastern

United States, having a hard and knotty rootstock. (b) An

orchidaceous plant (Gastrodia sesamoides) of Australia and Tasmania.


Ya”ma, n. Etym: [Skr. yama a twin.] (Hindoo Myth.)

Defn: The king of the infernal regions, corresponding to the Greek

Pluto, and also the judge of departed souls. In later times he is

more exclusively considered the dire judge of all, and the tormentor

of the wicked. He is represented as of a green color, with red

garments, having a crown on his head, his eyes inflamed, and sitting

on a buffalo, with a club and noose in his hands.


Ya”men, n. [Chin. ya a civil or military court + men a gate.]

Defn: In China, the official headquarters or residence of a mandarin,

including court rooms, offices, gardens, prisons, etc.; the place

where the business of any public department is transcated.


Yam”ma, n. Etym: [See Llama.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The llama.


Yamp, n. (Bot.)

Defn: An umbelliferous plant (Carum Gairdneri); also, its small

fleshy roots, which are eaten by the Indians from Idaho to



Yang, n. Etym: [Of imitative origin.]

Defn: The cry of the wild goose; a honk.


Yang, v. i.

Defn: To make the cry of the wild goose.


Yank, n. Etym: [Cf. Scot. yank a sudden and severe blow.]

Defn: A jerk or twitch. [Colloq. U. S.]


Yank, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Yanked; p. pr. & vb. n. Yanking.]

Defn: To twitch; to jerk. [Colloq. U. S.]


Yank, n.

Defn: An abbreviation of Yankee. [Slang]


Yan”kee, n. Etym: [Commonly considered to be a corrupt pronunciation

of the word English, or of the French word Anglais, by the native

Indians of America. According to Thierry, a corruption of Jankin, a

diminutive of John, and a nickname given to the English colonists of

Connecticut by the Dutch settlers of New York. Dr. W. Gordon (“Hist.

of the Amer. War,” ed, 1789, vol. i., pp. 324, 325) says it was a

favorite cant word in Cambridge, Mass., as early as 1713, and that it

meant excellent; as, a yankee good horse, yankee good cider, etc. Cf.

Scot yankie a sharp, clever, and rather bold woman, and Prov. E. bow-

yankees a kind of leggins worn by agricultural laborers.]

Defn: A nickname for a native of citizen of New England, especially

one descended from old New England stock; by extension, an inhabitant

of the Northern States as distinguished from a Southerner; also,

applied sometimes by foreigners to any inhabitant of the United


From meanness first this Portsmouth Yankey rose, And still to

meanness all his conduct flows. Oppression, A poem by an American

(Boston, 1765).


Yan”kee, a.

Defn: Of or pertaining to a Yankee; characteristic of the Yankees.

The alertness of the Yankee aspect. Hawthorne.

Yankee clover. (Bot.) See Japan clover, under Japan.


Yan`kee-Doo”dle, n.

1. The name of a tune adopted popularly as one of the national airs

of the United States.

2. Humorously, a Yankee.

We might have withheld our political noodles From knocking their

heads against hot Yankee-Doodles. Moore.


Yan”kee*ism, n.

Defn: A Yankee idiom, word, custom, or the like. Lowell.


Yaourt, n. Etym: [Turk. yoghurt.]

Defn: A fermented drink, or milk beer, made by the Turks.


Yap, v. i. Etym: [Icel. gjalpa; akin to yelp. Cf. Yaup.]

Defn: To bark; to yelp. L’Estrange.


Yap, n.

Defn: A bark; a yelp.


Ya”pock, n. Etym: [Probably from the river Oyapok, between French

Guiana and Brazil.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: A South American aquatic opossum (Chironectes variegatus) found

in Guiana and Brazil. Its hind feet are webbed, and its fore feet do

not have an opposable thumb for climbing. Called also water opossum.

[Written also yapack.]


Ya”pon, n. (Bot.)

Defn: Same as Yaupon.


Yar”age (; 48), n. Etym: [See Yare, a.] (Naut.)

Defn: The power of moving, or being managed, at sea; — said with

reference to a ship. Sir T. North.


Yard, n. Etym: [OE. yerd, AS. gierd, gyrd, a rod, ierde, OS. gerda,

D. garde, G. gerte, OHG. gartia, gerta, gart, Icel. gaddr a goad,

sting, Goth. gazds, and probably to L. hasta a spear. Cf. Gad, n.,

Gird, n., Gride, v. i., Hastate.]

1. A rod; a stick; a staff. [Obs.] P. Plowman.

If men smote it with a yerde. Chaucer.

2. A branch; a twig. [Obs.]

The bitter frosts with the sleet and rain Destroyed hath the green in

every yerd. Chaucer.

3. A long piece of timber, as a rafter, etc. [Obs.]

4. A measure of length, equaling three feet, or thirty-six inches,

being the standard of English and American measure.

5. The penis.

6. (Naut.)

Defn: A long piece of timber, nearly cylindrical, tapering toward the

ends, and designed to support and extend a square sail. A yard is

usually hung by the center to the mast. See Illust. of Ship. Golden

Yard, or Yard and Ell (Astron.), a popular name the three stars in

the belt of Orion.

 — Under yard [i. e., under the rod], under contract. [Obs.]



Yard, n. Etym: [OE. yard, yerd, AS. geard; akin to OFries. garda

garden, OS. gardo garden, gard yard, D. gaard garden, G. garten, OHG.

garto garden, gari inclosure, Icel. gar yard, house, Sw. gård, Dan.

g, Goth. gards a house, garda sheepfold, L. hortus garden, Gr. Court,

Garden, Garth, Horticulture, Orchard.]

1. An inclosure; usually, a small inclosed place in front of, or

around, a house or barn; as, a courtyard; a cowyard; a barnyard.

A yard . . . inclosed all about with sticks In which she had a cock,

hight chanticleer. Chaucer.

2. An inclosure within which any work or business is carried on; as,

a dockyard; a shipyard. Liberty of the yard, a liberty, granted to

persons imprisoned for debt, of walking in the yard, or within any

other limits prescribed by law, on their giving bond not to go beyond

those limits.

 — Prison yard, an inclosure about a prison, or attached to it.

 — Yard grass (Bot.), a low-growing grass (Eleusine Indica) having

digitate spikes. It is common in dooryards, and like places,

especially in the Southern United States. Called also crab grass.

 — Yard of land. See Yardland.


Yard, v. t.

Defn: To confine (cattle) to the yard; to shut up, or keep, in a

yard; as, to yard cows.


Yard”arm`, n. (Naut.)

Defn: Either half of a square-rigged vessel’s yard, from the center

or mast to the end.

Note: Ships are said to be yardarm and yardarm when so near as to

touch, or interlock yards.


Yard”ful, n.; pl. Yardfuls (.

Defn: As much as a yard will contain; enough to fill a yard.


Yard”land`, n. (O. Eng. Law)

Defn: A measure of land of uncertain quantity, varying from fifteen

to forty acres; a virgate. [Obs.]


Yard”stick`, n.

Defn: A stick three feet, or a yard, in length, used as a measure of

cloth, etc.


Yard”wand`, n.

Defn: A yardstick. Tennyson.


Yare, a. Etym: [OE. yare, ýaru, AS. gearu; akin to OS. garu, OHG.

garo, G. gar, Icel. gerr perfect, görva quite, G. gerben to tan, to

curry, OHG. garawen, garwen, to make ready. Cf. Carouse, Garb

clothing, Gear, n.]

Defn: Ready; dexterous; eager; lively; quick to move. [Obs.] “Be yare

in thy preparation.” Shak.

The lesser [ship] will come and go, leave or take, and is yare;

whereas the greater is slow. Sir W. Raleigh.


Yare, adv.

Defn: Soon. [Obs.] Cursor Mundi.


Yare”ly, adv.

Defn: In a yare manner. [Obs.] Shak.


Yark, v. t. & i.

Defn: To yerk. [Prov. Eng.]


Yar”ke, n. (Zoöl.)

Defn: Same as Saki.


Yarn, n. Etym: [OE. yarn, ýarn, AS. gearn; akin to D. garen, G.,

OHG., Icel., Sw., & Dan. garn; of uncertain origin. Cf. Cord.]

1. Spun wool; woolen thread; also, thread of other material, as of

cotton, flax, hemp, or silk; material spun and prepared for use in

weaving, knitting, manufacturing sewing thread, or the like.

2. (Rope Making)

Defn: One of the threads of which the strands of a rope are composed.

3. A story told by a sailor for the amusement of his companions; a

story or tale; as, to spin a yarn. [Colloq.]


Yarn”en, a.

Defn: Made of yarn; consisting of yarn. [Obs.] “A pair of yarnen

stocks.” Turbervile.


Yar”nut`, n. (Bot.)

Defn: See Yernut.


Yarr, v. i. Etym: [OE. ýarren.]

Defn: To growl or snarl as a dog. [Obs.] Ainsworth.


Yar”rish, a. Etym: [Prov. E. yar sour, yare brackish.]

Defn: Having a rough, dry taste. [Prov. Eng.]


Yar”row, n. Etym: [OE. yarowe, yarwe, ýarowe, AS. gearwe; akin to D.

gerw, OHG. garwa, garawa, G. garbe, schafgarbe, and perhaps to E.

yare.] (Bot.)

Defn: An American and European composite plant (Achillea Millefolium)

with very finely dissected leaves and small white corymbed flowers.

It has a strong, and somewhat aromatic, odor and taste, and is

sometimes used in making beer, or is dried for smoking. Called also

milfoil, and nosebleed.


Yar”whip`, n. Etym: [So called from its sharp cry uttered when taking

wing.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The European bar-tailed godwit; — called also yardkeep, and

yarwhelp. See Godwit. [Prov. Eng.]


Yat”a*ghan, n. Etym: [Turk. yataghan.]

Defn: A long knife, or short saber, common among Mohammedan nations,

usually having a double curve, sometimes nearly straight. [Written

also ataghan, attaghan.] Chaucer.


Yate, n.

Defn: A gate. See 1st Gate. [Obs. or Prov. Eng.] Spenser.


Yaud, n.

Defn: See Yawd. [Prov. Eng. & Scot.]


Yaul, n. (Naut.)

Defn: See Yawl.


Yaulp, v. i.

Defn: To yaup.


Yaup, v. i. Etym: [See Yap, and Yelp.]

Defn: To cry out like a child; to yelp. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]

[Written also yawp.]


Yaup, n. Etym: [Written also yawp.]

1. A cry of distress, rage, or the like, as the cry of a sickly bird,

or of a child in pain. [Scot. & Colloq. U. S.]

2. (Zoöl.)

Defn: The blue titmouse. [Prov. Eng.]


Yaup”er, n.

Defn: One who, or that which, yaups.


Yau”pon, n. (Bot.)

Defn: A shrub (Ilex Cassine) of the Holly family, native from

Virginia to Florida. The smooth elliptical leaves are used as a

substitute for tea, and were formerly used in preparing the black

drink of the Indians of North Carolina. Called also South-Sea tea.

[Written also yapon, youpon, and yupon.]


Yau*ti”a, n. [Native name in the Antilles.]

Defn: In Porto Rico, any of several araceous plants or their starchy

edible roots, which are cooked and eaten like yams or potatoes, as

the taro.


Yaw, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yawed; p. pr. & vb. n. Yawing.] Etym: [Cf.

Yew, v. i.]

Defn: To rise in blisters, breaking in white froth, as cane juice in

the clarifiers in sugar works.


Yaw, v. i. & t. Etym: [Cf. Prov. G. gagen to rock, gageln to totter,

shake, Norw. gaga to bend backward, Icel. gagr bent back, gaga to

throw the neck back.] (Naut.)

Defn: To steer wild, or out of the line of her course; to deviate

from her course, as when struck by a heavy sea; — said of a ship.

Just as he would lay the ship’s course, all yawing being out of the

question. Lowell.


Yaw, n. (Naut.)

Defn: A movement of a vessel by which she temporarily alters her

course; a deviation from a straight course in steering.


Yawd, n. Etym: [Cf. Icel. jalda a mare, E. jade a nag.]

Defn: A jade; an old horse or mare. [Written also yaud.] [Prov. Eng.

& Scot.] Grose.


Yawi, n.

Defn: A fore-and-aft-rigged vessel with a mainmast stepped a little

farther forward than in a sloop and carrying a mainsail and jibs,

with a jigger mast far aft, usually placed abaft the rudder post.


Yawl, n. Etym: [D. jol; akin to LG. & Dan. jolle, Sw. julle. Cf.

Jolly-boat.] (Naut.)

Defn: A small ship’s boat, usually rowed by four or six oars.

[Written also yaul.]


Yawl, v. i. Etym: [OE. ýaulen, ýoulen, gaulen, goulen, Icel. gaula to

low, bellow. Cf. Gowl.]

Defn: To cry out like a dog or cat; to howl; to yell. Tennyson.

There howling Scyllas yawling round about. Fairfax.


Yawl”-rigged”, a. (Naut.)

Defn: Having two masts with fore-and-aft sails, but differing from a

schooner in that the after mast is very small, and stepped as far aft

as possible. See Illustration in Appendix.


Yawn, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yawned; p. pr. & vb. n. Yawning.] Etym:

[OE. yanien, ýanien, ganien, gonien, AS. ganian; akin to ginian to

yawn, ginan to yawn, open wide, G. gähnen to yawn, OHG. ginen,

geinon, Icel. gina to yawn, gin the mouth, OSlav. zijati to yawn, L.

hiare to gape, yawn; and perhaps to E. begin, cf. Gr. b. Cf. Begin,

Gin to begin, Hiatus.]

1. To open the mouth involuntarily through drowsiness, dullness, or

fatigue; to gape; to oscitate. “The lazy, yawning drone.” Shak.

And while above he spends his breath, The yawning audience nod

beneath. Trumbull.

2. To open wide; to gape, as if to allow the entrance or exit of


‘t is now the very witching time of night, When churchyards yawn.


3. To open the mouth, or to gape, through surprise or bewilderment.


4. To be eager; to desire to swallow anything; to express desire by

yawning; as, to yawn for fat livings. “One long, yawning gaze.”



Yawn, n.

1. An involuntary act, excited by drowsiness, etc., consisting of a

deep and long inspiration following several successive attempts at

inspiration, the mouth, fauces, etc., being wide open.

One person yawning in company will produce a spontaneous yawn in all

present. N. Chipman.

2. The act of opening wide, or of gaping. Addison.

3. A chasm, mouth, or passageway. [R.]

Now gape the graves, and trough their yawns let loose Imprisoned

spirits. Marston.


Yawn”ing*ly, adv.

Defn: In a yawning manner.


Yawp, v. & n.

Defn: See Yaup.


Yaws, n. Etym: [African yaw a raspberry.] (Med.)

Defn: A disease, occurring in the Antilles and in Africa,

characterized by yellowish or reddish tumors, of a contagious

character, which, in shape and appearance, often resemble currants,

strawberries, or raspberries. There are several varieties of this

disease, variously known as framboesia, pian, verrugas, and crab-



Yaw”-weed`, n. (Bot.)

Defn: A low, shrubby, rubiaceous plant (Morinda Royoc) growing along

the seacoast of the West Indies. It has small, white, odorous



Yaz”oo Fraud. (U. S. Hist.)

Defn: The grant by the State of Georgia, by Act of Jan. 7, 1795, of

35,000,000 acres of her western territory, for $500,000, to four

companies known as the Yazoo Companies from the region granted ; —

commonly so called, the act being known as the Yazoo Frauds Act,

because of alleged corruption of the legislature, every member but

one being a shareholder in one or more of the companies. The act

granting the land was repealed in 1796 by a new legislature, and the

repealing provision was incorporated in the State constitution in

1798. In 1802 the territory was ceded to the United States. The

claims of the purchasers, whom Georgia had refused to compensate,

were sustained by the United States Supreme Court, which (1810)

declared the repealing act of 1796 unconstitutional. Congress in 1814

ordered the lands sold and appropriated $5,000,000 to pay the claims.


Y*be”, obs. p. p. of Be.

Defn: Been. Chaucer.


Y*cleped”, p. p. Etym: [AS. geclipod, p. p. of clipian, cleopian,

cliopian, to call. See Clepe, and also the Note under Y-.]

Defn: Called; named; — obsolete, except in archaic or humorous

writings. [Spelt also yclept.]

It is full fair to ben yclept madame. Chaucer.

But come, thou goddess fair and free. In heaven ycleped Euphrosyne.


Those charming little missives ycleped valentines. Lamb.


Y current. (Elec.)

Defn: The current through one branch of the star arrangement of a

three-phase circuit.


Y*do”, obs. p. p. of Do.

Defn: Done. Chaucer.


Y*drad”, obs. p. p. of Dread.

Defn: Dreaded.

Yet nothing did he dread, but ever was ydrad. Spenser.



Defn: an old method of printing the article the (AS. þe), the “y”

being used in place of the Anglo-Saxon thorn. It is sometimes

incorrectly pronounced ye. See The, and Thorn, n., 4.


Y”ë (e”e), n.; pl. Yën (.

Defn: An eye. [Obs.]

From his yën ran the water down. Chaucer.


Ye (ye), pron. Etym: [OE. ye, ýe, nom. pl., AS. ge, gi; cf. OS. ge,

gi, OFries. gi, i, D. gij, Dan. & Sw. i, Icel. er, OHG. ir, G. ihr,

Goth. jus, Lith. jus, Gr. yuyam.

Defn: The plural of the pronoun of the second person in the

nominative case.

Ye ben to me right welcome heartily. Chaucer.

But ye are washed, but ye are sanctified. 1 Cor. vi. 11.

This would cost you your life in case ye were a man. Udall.

Note: In Old English ye was used only as a nominative, and you only

as a dative or objective. In the 16th century, however, ye and you

became confused and were often used interchangeably, both as

nominatives and objectives, and you has now superseded ye except in

solemn or poetic use. See You, and also the first Note under Thou.

Vain pomp and glory of this world, I hate ye. Shak.

I come, kind gentlemen, strange news to tell ye. Dryden.


Ye, adv. Etym: [See Yea.]

Defn: Yea; yes. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Yea (ya or ye; 277), adv. Etym: [OE. ye, ya, ýe, ýa, AS. geá; akin to

OFries. g, i, OS., D., OHG., G., Dan. & Sw. ja, Icel, ja, Goth. ja,

jai, and probably to Gr. Yes.]

1. Yes; ay; a word expressing assent, or an affirmative, or an

affirmative answer to a question, now superseded by yes. See Yes.

Let your communication be yea, yea; nay, nay. Matt. v. 37.

2. More than this; not only so, but; — used to mark the addition of

a more specific or more emphatic clause. Cf. Nay, adv., 2.

I therein do rejoice, yea, and will rejoice. Phil. i. 18.

Note: Yea sometimes introduces a clause, with the sense of indeed,

verily, truly. “Yea, hath God said, Ye shall not eat of every tree of

the garden” Gen. iii. 1.


Yea, n.

Defn: An affirmative vote; one who votes in the affirmative; as, a

vote by yeas and nays.

Note: In the Scriptures, yea is used as a sign of certainty or

stability. “All the promises of God in him are yea, and in him Amen.”

2 Cor. i. 20.


Yead, v. i.

Defn: Properly, a variant of the defective imperfect yode, but

sometimes mistaken for a present. See the Note under Yede. [Obs.]

Years yead away and faces fair deflower. Drant.


Yean, v. t. & i. [imp. & p. p. Yeaned; p. pr. & vb. n. Yeaning.]

Etym: [AS. eánian, or geeánian; perhaps akin to E. ewe, or perhaps to

L. agnus, Gr. Ean.]

Defn: To bring forth young, as a goat or a sheep; to ean. Shak.


Yean”ling, n. Etym: [Yean + -ling. Cf. Eanling.]

Defn: A lamb or a kid; an eanling. Shak.


Year, n. Etym: [OE. yer, yeer, ýer, AS. geár; akin to OFries. i, g,

D. jaar, OHG. jar, G. jahr, Icel. ar, Dan. aar, Sw. år, Goth. j, Gr.

yare year. sq. root4, 279. Cf. Hour, Yore.]

1. The time of the apparent revolution of the sun trough the

ecliptic; the period occupied by the earth in making its revolution

around the sun, called the astronomical year; also, a period more or

less nearly agreeing with this, adopted by various nations as a

measure of time, and called the civil year; as, the common lunar year

of 354 days, still in use among the Mohammedans; the year of 360

days, etc. In common usage, the year consists of 365 days, and every

fourth year (called bissextile, or leap year) of 366 days, a day

being added to February on that year, on account of the excess above

365 days (see Bissextile).

Of twenty year of age he was, I guess. Chaucer.

Note: The civil, or legal, year, in England, formerly commenced on

the 25th of March. This practice continued throughout the British

dominions till the year 1752.

2. The time in which any planet completes a revolution about the sun;

as, the year of Jupiter or of Saturn.

3. pl.

Defn: Age, or old age; as, a man in years. Shak. Anomalistic year,

the time of the earth’s revolution from perihelion to perihelion

again, which is 365 days, 6 hours, 13 minutes, and 48 seconds.

 — A year’s mind (Eccl.), a commemoration of a deceased person, as

by a Mass, a year after his death. Cf. A month’s mind, under Month.

 — Bissextile year. See Bissextile.

 — Canicular year. See under Canicular.

 — Civil year, the year adopted by any nation for the computation of


 — Common lunar year, the period of 12 lunar months, or 354 days.

 — Common year, each year of 365 days, as distinguished from leap


 — Embolismic year, or Intercalary lunar year, the period of 13

lunar months, or 384 days.

 — Fiscal year (Com.), the year by which accounts are reckoned, or

the year between one annual time of settlement, or balancing of

accounts, and another.

 — Great year. See Platonic year, under Platonic.

 — Gregorian year, Julian year. See under Gregorian, and Julian.

 — Leap year. See Leap year, in the Vocabulary.

 — Lunar astronomical year, the period of 12 lunar synodical months,

or 354 days, 8 hours, 48 minutes, 36 seconds.

 — Lunisolar year. See under Lunisolar.

 — Periodical year. See Anomalistic year, above.

 — Platonic year, Sabbatical year. See under Platonic, and


 — Sidereal year, the time in which the sun, departing from any

fixed star, returns to the same. This is 365 days, 6 hours, 9

minutes, and 9.3 seconds.

 — Tropical year. See under Tropical.

 — Year and a day (O. Eng. Law), a time to be allowed for an act or

an event, in order that an entire year might be secured beyond all

question. Abbott.

 — Year of grace, any year of the Christian era; Anno Domini; A. D.

or a. d.


Ye*a”ra, n. (Bot.)

Defn: The California poison oak (Rhus diversiloba). See under Poison,



Year”book`, n.

1. A book published yearly; any annual report or summary of the

statistics or facts of a year, designed to be used as a reference

book; as, the Congregational Yearbook.

2. (Eng. Law)

Defn: A book containing annual reports of cases adjudged in the

courts of England.

Note: The Yearbooks are the oldest English reports extant, beginning

with the reign of Edward II., and ending with the reign of Henry

VIII. They were published annually, and derive their name from that

fact. They consist of eleven parts, or volumes, are written in Law

French, and extend over nearly two hundred years. There are, however,

several hiatuses, or chasms, in the series. Kent. Bouvier.


Yeared, a.

Defn: Containing years; having existed or continued many years; aged.

[Obs.] B. Jonson.


Year”ling, n. Etym: [Year + -ling.]

Defn: An animal one year old, or in the second year of its age; —

applied chiefly to cattle, sheep, and horses.


Year”ling, a.

Defn: Being a year old. “A yearling bullock to thy name small smoke.”



Year”ly, a. Etym: [AS. geárlic.]

1. Happening, accruing, or coming every year; annual; as, a yearly

income; a yearly feast.

2. Lasting a year; as, a yearly plant.

3. Accomplished in a year; as, the yearly circuit, or revolution, of

the earth. Shak.


Year”ly, adv. Etym: [AS. geárlice.]

Defn: Annually; once a year to year; as, blessings yearly bestowed.

Yearly will I do this rite. Shak.


Yearn, v. t.

[imp. & p. p. Yearned; p. pr. & vb. n. Yearning.]


[Also earn, ern; probably a corruption of OE. ermen to grieve, AS.

ierman, yrman, or geierman, geyrman, fr. earm wretched, poor; akin to

D. & G. arm, Icel. armr, Goth. arms. The y- in English is perhaps due

to the AS. ge (see Y-).]

Defn: To pain; to grieve; to vex. [Obs.] “She laments, sir, for it,

that it would yearn your heart to see it.” Shak.

It yearns me not if men my garments wear. Shak.


Yearn, v. i.

Defn: To be pained or distressed; to grieve; to mourn. [Obs.]

“Falstaff he is dead, and we must yearn therefore.” Shak.


Yearn, v. i. & t. Etym: [See Yearnings.]

Defn: To curdle, as milk. [Scot.]


Yearn, v. i. Etym: [OE. yernen, , , AS. geornian, gyrnan, fr. georn

desirous, eager; akin to OS. gern desirous, girnean, gernean, to

desire, D. gaarne gladly, willingly, G. gern, OHG. gerno, adv., gern,

a., G. gier greed, OHG. giri greed, ger desirous, ger to desire, G.

begehren, Icel. girna to desire, gjarn eager, Goth. faíhugaírns

covetous, gaírnjan to desire, and perhaps to Gr. hary to desire, to


Defn: To be filled with longing desire; to be harassed or rendered

uneasy with longing, or feeling the want of a thing; to strain with

emotions of affection or tenderness; to long; to be eager.

Joseph made haste; for his bowels did yearn upon his brother; and he

sought where to weep. Gen. xliii. 30.

Your mother’s heart yearns towards you. Addison.


Yearn”ful, a. Etym: [OE. , AS. geornfull.]

Defn: Desirous. [Obs.] Ormulum. P. Fletcher.


Yearn”ing*ly, adv.

Defn: With yearning.


Yearn”ings, n. pl. Etym: [Cf. AS. geirnan, geyrnan, to rum. See 4th


Defn: The maws, or stomachs, of young calves, used a rennet for

curdling milk. [Scot.]


Year’s purchase.

Defn: The amount that is yielded by the annual income of property; —

used in expressing the value of a thing in the number of years

required for its income to yield its purchase price, in reckoning the

amount to be paid for annuities, etc.


Yearth, n.

Defn: The earth. [Obs.] “Is my son dead or hurt or on the yerthe

felled” Ld. Berners.


Yeast, n. Etym: [OE. ýeest, ýest, AS. gist; akin to D. gest, gist, G.

gischt, gäscht, OHG. jesan, jerian, to ferment, G. gischen, gäschen,

gähren, Gr. zei^n to boil, Skr. yas. sq. root111.]

1. The foam, or troth (top yeast), or the sediment (bottom yeast), of

beer or other in fermentation, which contains the yeast plant or its

spores, and under certain conditions produces fermentation in

saccharine or farinaceous substances; a preparation used for raising

dough for bread or cakes, and making it light and puffy; barm;


2. Spume, or foam, of water.

They melt thy yeast of waves, which mar Alike the Armada’s pride, or

spoils of Trafalgar. Byron.

Defn: A form of fungus which grows as indvidual rounded cells, rather

than in a mycelium, and reproduces by budding; esp. members of the

orders Endomycetales and Moniliales. Some fungi may grow both as a

yeast or as a mycelium, depending on the conditions of growth. Yeast

cake, a mealy cake impregnated with the live germs of the yeast

plant, and used as a conveniently transportable substitute for yeast.

 — Yeast plant (Bot.), the vegetable organism, or fungus, of which

beer yeast consists. The yeast plant is composed of simple cells, or

granules, about one three-thousandth of an inch in diameter, often

united into filaments which reproduce by budding, and under certain

circumstances by the formation of spores. The name is extended to

other ferments of the same genus. See Saccharomyces.

 — Yeast powder, a baling powder, — used instead of yeast in

leavening bread.


Yeast”-bit`ten, a. (Brewing)

Defn: A term used of beer when the froth of the yeast has reëntered

the body of the beer.


Yeast”i*ness, n.

Defn: The quality or state of being yeasty, or frothy.


Yeast”y, a.

Defn: Frothy; foamy; spumy, like yeast.


Yed”ding, n. Etym: [AS. geddung, gidding, giedding, from gieddian,

giddian, to sing, speak.]

Defn: The song of a minstrel; hence, any song. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Yede, obs. imp.

Defn: Went. See Yode.

All as he bade fulfilled was indeed This ilke servant anon right out

yede. Chaucer.

Note: Spenser and some later writers mistook this for a present of

the defective imperfect yode. It is, however, only a variant of yode.

See Yode, and cf. Yead.

[He] on foot was forced for to yeed. Spenser


Yeel, n.

Defn: An eel. [Obs.] Holland.


Yeld”hall`, n.

Defn: Guildhall. [Obs.] Chaucer.


Yel”drin or; Yel”drine, n. Etym: [Cf. Yellow.] (Zoöl.)

Defn: The yellow-hammer; — called also yeldrock, and yoldrin. [Prov.



Yelk, n.

Defn: Same as Yolk.


Yell, v. i. [imp. & p. p. Yelled; p. pr. & vb. n. Yelling.] Etym:

[OE. yellen, , AS. giellan, gillan, gyllan; akin to D. gillen, OHG.

gellan, G. gellen, Icel. gjalla, Sw. gälla to ring, resound, and to

AS., OS., & OHG. galan to sing, Icel. gala. Cf. 1st Gale, and


Defn: To cry out, or shriek, with a hideous noise; to cry or scream

as with agony or horror.

They yelleden as feendes doon in helle. Chaucer.

Nor the night raven, that still deadly yells. Spenser.

Infernal ghosts and hellish furies round Environed thee; some howled,

some yelled. Milton.


Yell, v. t.

Defn: To utter or declare with a yell; to proclaim in a loud tone.



Yell, n.

Defn: A sharp, loud, hideous outcry.

Their hideous yells Rend the dark welkin. J. Philips.


Yel”low, a. [Compar. Yellower; superl. Yellowest.] Etym: [OE. yelow,

yelwe, ýelow, ýeoluw, from AS. geolu; akin to D. geel, OS. & OHG.

gelo, G. gelb, Icel. gulr, Sw. gul, Dan. guul, L. helvus light bay,

Gr. hari tawny, yellowish. Chlorine, Gall a bitter liquid, Gold,


Defn: Being of a bright saffronlike color; of the color of gold or

brass; having the hue of that part of the rainbow, or of the solar

spectrum, which is between the orange and the green.

Her yellow hair was browded [braided] in a tress. Chaucer.

A sweaty reaper from his tillage brought First fruits, the green ear

and the yellow sheaf. Milton.

The line of yellow light dies fast away. Keble.

Yellow atrophy (Med.), a fatal affection of the liver, in which it

undergoes fatty degeneration, and becomes rapidly smaller and of a

deep yellow tinge. The marked symptoms are black vomit, delirium,

convulsions, coma, and jaundice.

 — Yellow bark, calisaya bark.

 — Yellow bass (Zoöl.), a North American fresh-water bass (Morone

interrupta) native of the lower parts of the Mississippi and its

tributaries. It is yellow, with several more or less broken black

stripes or bars. Called also barfish.

 — Yellow berry. (Bot.) Same as Persian berry, under Persian.

 — Yellow boy, a gold coin, as a guinea. [Slang] Arbuthnot.

 — Yellow brier. (Bot.) See under Brier.

 — Yellow bugle (Bot.), a European labiate plant (Ajuga Chamæpitys).

 — Yellow bunting (Zoöl.), the European yellow-hammer.

 — Yellow cat (Zoöl.), a yellow catfish; especially, the bashaw.

 — Yellow copperas (Min.), a hydrous sulphate of iron; — called

also copiapite.

 — Yellow copper ore, a sulphide of copper and iron; copper pyrites.

See Chalcopyrite.

 — Yellow cress (Bot.), a yellow-flowered, cruciferous plant

(Barbarea præcox), sometimes grown as a salad plant.

 — Yellow dock. (Bot.) See the Note under Dock.

 — Yellow earth, a yellowish clay, colored by iron, sometimes used

as a yellow pigment.

 — Yellow fever (Med.), a malignant, contagious, febrile disease of

warm climates, attended with jaundice, producing a yellow color of

the skin, and with the black vomit. See Black vomit, in the


 — Yellow flag, the quarantine flag. See under Quarantine, and 3d


 — Yellow jack. (a) The yellow fever. See under 2d Jack. (b) The

quarantine flag. See under Quarantine.

 — Yellow jacket (Zoöl.), any one of several species of American

social wasps of the genus Vespa, in which the color of the body is

partly bright yellow. These wasps are noted for their irritability,

and for their painful stings.

 — Yellow lead ore (Min.), wulfenite.

 — Yellow lemur (Zoöl.), the kinkajou.

 — Yellow macauco (Zoöl.), the kinkajou.

 — Yellow mackerel (Zoöl.), the jurel.

 — Yellow metal. Same as Muntz metal, under Metal.

 — Yellow ocher (Min.), an impure, earthy variety of brown iron ore,

which is used as a pigment.

 — Yellow oxeye (Bot.), a yellow-flowered plant (Chrysanthemum

segetum) closely related to the oxeye daisy.

 — Yellow perch (Zoöl.), the common American perch. See Perch.

 — Yellow pike (Zoöl.), the wall-eye.

 — Yellow pine (Bot.), any of several kinds of pine; also, their

yellowish and generally durable timber. Among the most common are

valuable species are Pinus mitis and P. palustris of the Eastern and

Southern States, and P. ponderosa and P. Arizonica of the Rocky

Mountains and Pacific States.

 — Yellow plover (Zoöl.), the golden plover.

 — Yellow precipitate (Med. Chem.), an oxide of mercury which is

thrown down as an amorphous yellow powder on adding corrosive

sublimate to limewater.

 — Yellow puccoon. (Bot.) Same as Orangeroot.

 — Yellow rail (Zoöl.), a small American rail (Porzana

Noveboracensis) in which the lower parts are dull yellow, darkest on

the breast. The back is streaked with brownish yellow and with black,

and spotted with white. Called also yellow crake.

 — Yellow rattle, Yellow rocket. (Bot.) See under Rattle, and


 — Yellow Sally (Zoöl.), a greenish or yellowish European stone fly

of the genus Chloroperla; — so called by anglers.

 — Yellow sculpin (Zoöl.), the dragonet.

 — Yellow snake (Zoöl.), a West Indian boa (Chilobothrus inornatus)

common in Jamaica. It becomes from eight to ten long. The body is

yellowish or yellowish green, mixed with black, and anteriorly with

black lines.

 — Yellow spot. (a) (Anat.) A small yellowish spot with a central

pit, the fovea centralis, in the center of the retina where vision is

most accurate. See Eye. (b) (Zoöl.) A small American butterfly

(Polites Peckius) of the Skipper family. Its wings are brownish, with

a large, irregular, bright yellow spot on each of the hind wings,

most conspicuous beneath. Called also Peck’s skipper. See Illust.

under Skipper, n., 5.

 — Yellow tit (Zoöl.), any one of several species of crested titmice

of the genus Machlolophus, native of India. The predominating colors

of the plumage are yellow and green.

 — Yellow viper (Zoöl.), the fer-de-lance.

 — Yellow warbler (Zoöl.), any one of several species of American

warblers of the genus Dendroica in which the predominant color is

yellow, especially D. æstiva, which is a very abundant and familiar

species; — called also garden warbler, golden warbler, summer

yellowbird, summer warbler, and yellow-poll warbler.

 — Yellow wash (Pharm.), yellow oxide of mercury suspended in water,

— a mixture prepared by adding corrosive sublimate to limewater.

 — Yellow wren (Zoöl.) (a) The European willow warbler. (b) The

European wood warbler.

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