Introduction ::YEMEN
North Yemen became independent of the Ottoman Empire in 1918. The British, who had set up a protectorate area around the southern port of Aden in the 19th century, withdrew in 1967 from what became South Yemen. Three years later, the southern government adopted a Marxist orientation. The massive exodus of hundreds of thousands of Yemenis from the south to the north contributed to two decades of hostility between the states. The two countries were formally unified as the Republic of Yemen in 1990. A southern secessionist movement and brief civil war in 1994 was quickly subdued. In 2000, Saudi Arabia and Yemen agreed to a delimitation of their border. Fighting in the northwest between the government and the Huthis, a Zaydi Shia minority, began in 2004 and has since resulted in six rounds of fighting – the last ended in early 2010 with a cease-fire that continues to hold. The southern secessionist movement was revitalized in 2008 when a popular socioeconomic protest movement initiated the prior year took on political goals including secession. Public rallies in Sana’a against then President SALIH – inspired by similar demonstrations in Tunisia and Egypt – slowly built momentum starting in late January 2011 fueled by complaints over high unemployment, poor economic conditions, and corruption. By the following month, some protests had resulted in violence, and the demonstrations had spread to other major cities. By March the opposition had hardened its demands and was unifying behind calls for SALIH’s immediate ouster, and prominent military and tribal leaders began defecting from SALIH’s camp. The Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) in late April 2011, in an attempt to mediate the crisis in Yemen, proposed an agreement in which the president would step down in exchange for immunity from prosecution. SALIH’s refusal to sign an agreement led to heavy street fighting and his injury in an explosion in June 2011. The UN Security Council passed Resolution 2014 in October 2011 calling on both sides to end the violence and complete a power transfer deal. In late November 2011, SALIH signed the GCC-brokered agreement to step down and to transfer some of his powers to Vice President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI. Following elections in February 2012, won by HADI, SALIH formally transferred his powers. In accordance with the GCC initiative, Yemen launched a National Dialogue in March 2013 to discuss key constitutional, political, and social issues. HADI concluded the National Dialogue in January 2014. Subsequent steps in the transition process include constitutional drafting, a constitutional referendum, and national elections.
Geography ::YEMEN
Middle East, bordering the Arabian Sea, Gulf of Aden, and Red Sea, between Oman and Saudi Arabia
Geographic coordinates:
15 00 N, 48 00 E
Map references:
Middle East
total: 527,968 sq km
country comparison to the world: 50
land: 527,968 sq km
water: 0 sq km
note: includes Perim, Socotra, the former Yemen Arab Republic (YAR or North Yemen), and the former People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen (PDRY or South Yemen)
Area – comparative:
Area comparison map: 
Land boundaries:
total: 1,746 km
border countries: Oman 288 km, Saudi Arabia 1,458 km
1,906 km
Maritime claims:
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
mostly desert; hot and humid along west coast; temperate in western mountains affected by seasonal monsoon; extraordinarily hot, dry, harsh desert in east
narrow coastal plain backed by flat-topped hills and rugged mountains; dissected upland desert plains in center slope into the desert interior of the Arabian Peninsula
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: Arabian Sea 0 m
highest point: Jabal an Nabi Shu’ayb 3,760 m
Natural resources:
petroleum, fish, rock salt, marble; small deposits of coal, gold, lead, nickel, and copper; fertile soil in west
Land use:
arable land: 2.2%
permanent crops: 0.55%
other: 97.25% (2011)
Irrigated land:
6,801 sq km (2004)
Total renewable water resources:
2.1 cu km (2011)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):
total: 3.57 cu km/yr (7%/2%/91%)
per capita: 162.4 cu m/yr (2005)
Natural hazards:
sandstorms and dust storms in summer
volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Jebel at Tair (Jabal al-Tair, Jebel Teir, Jabal al-Tayr, Jazirat at-Tair) (elev. 244 m), which forms an island in the Red Sea, erupted in 2007 after awakening from dormancy; other historically active volcanoes include Harra of Arhab, Harras of Dhamar, Harra es-Sawad, and Jebel Zubair, although many of these have not erupted in over a century
Environment – current issues:
limited natural freshwater resources; inadequate supplies of potable water; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
Environment – international agreements:
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography – note:
strategic location on Bab el Mandeb, the strait linking the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, one of world’s most active shipping lanes
People and Society ::YEMEN
noun: Yemeni(s)
adjective: Yemeni
Ethnic groups:
predominantly Arab; but also Afro-Arab, South Asians, Europeans
Arabic (official)
Muslim 99.1% (official; virtually all are citizens, an estimated 65% are Sunni and 35% are Shia), other 0.9% (includes Jewish, Baha’i, Hindu, and Christian; many are refugees or temporary foreign residents) (2010 est.)
26,052,966 (July 2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 48
Age structure:
0-14 years: 41.7% (male 5,523,744/female 5,336,795)
15-24 years: 21.1% (male 2,789,510/female 2,709,263)
25-54 years: 30.9% (male 4,106,917/female 3,933,852)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 450,185/female 515,255)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 320,426/female 367,019) (2014 est.)
population pyramid: 
Dependency ratios:
total dependency ratio: 74.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 69 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.1 %
potential support ratio: 19.7 (2014 est.)
Median age:
total: 18.6 years
male: 18.5 years
female: 18.7 years (2014 est.)
Population growth rate:
2.72% (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 20
Birth rate:
31.02 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 39
Death rate:
6.45 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 153
Net migration rate:
2.61 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37
urban population: 32.3% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas – population:
SANAA (capital) 2.419 million; Aden 784,000 (2011)
Sex ratio:
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.9 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate:
200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
country comparison to the world: 57
Infant mortality rate:
total: 50.41 deaths/1,000 live births
country comparison to the world: 38
male: 54.71 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 45.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 64.83 years
country comparison to the world: 175
male: 62.72 years
female: 67.04 years (2014 est.)
Total fertility rate:
4.09 children born/woman (2014 est.)
country comparison to the world: 36
Contraceptive prevalence rate:
27.7% (2006)
Health expenditures:
5.5% of GDP (2011)
country comparison to the world: 122
Physicians density:
0.2 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density:
0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source:
urban: 72% of population
rural: 46.5% of population
total: 54.9% of population
urban: 28% of population
rural: 53.5% of population
total: 45.1% of population (2012 est.)
Sanitation facility access:
urban: 92.5% of population
rural: 34.1% of population
total: 53.3% of population
urban: 7.5% of population
rural: 65.9% of population
total: 46.7% of population (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate:
0.1% (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 151
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS:
18,800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
HIV/AIDS – deaths:
800 (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Major infectious diseases:
degree of risk: high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever and malaria
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2013)
Obesity – adult prevalence rate:
14.5% (2008)
country comparison to the world: 121
Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
43.1% (2003)
country comparison to the world: 3
Education expenditures:
5.2% of GDP (2008)
country comparison to the world: 67
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 65.3%
male: 82.1%
female: 48.5% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 9 years
male: 11 years
female: 8 years (2011)
Child labor – children ages 5-14:
total number: 1,334,288
percentage: 23 % (2006 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 33.7%
country comparison to the world: 22
male: 26%
female: 74% (2010)
Government ::YEMEN
Country name:
conventional long form: Republic of Yemen
conventional short form: Yemen
local long form: Al Jumhuriyah al Yamaniyah
local short form: Al Yaman
former: Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]
Government type:
name: Sanaa
geographic coordinates: 15 21 N, 44 12 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:
20 governorates (muhafazat, singular – muhafazah) and 1 municipality*; Abyan, ‘Adan (Aden), Ad Dali’, Al Bayda’, Al Hudaydah, Al Jawf, Al Mahrah, Al Mahwit, Amanat al ‘Asimah (Sanaa City)*, ‘Amran, Dhamar, Hadramawt, Hajjah, Ibb, Lahij, Ma’rib, Raymah, Sa’dah, San’a’ (Sanaa), Shabwah, Ta’izz
22 May 1990 (Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People’s Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]); note – previously North Yemen became independent in November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and became a republic with the overthrow of the theocratic Imamate in 1962; South Yemen became independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
National holiday:
Unification Day, 22 May (1990)
adopted by referendum 16 May 1991 (following unification); amended several times, last in 2009; note – in early 2013, the Yemeni Government launched a National Dialogue to seek reforms and recommendations for a new constitution (2013)
Legal system:
mixed legal system of Islamic law, Napoleonic law, English common law, and customary law
International law organization participation:
has not submitted an ICJ jurisdiction declaration; non-party state to the ICCt
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
chief of state: President Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI (Field Marshal) (since 25 February 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Muhammad Salim BA SINDWAH (since 27 November 2011); Deputy Prime Ministers Abdallah Muhsin al-AKWA and Ahmad Ubayd BIN DAGHIR
cabinet: on 27 November 2011, Vice President HADI requested Interim Prime Minister Muhammad Salim BA SINDWAH to form a new government following the resignation of President SALIH on 24 November 2011
(For more information visit the World Leaders website )
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term based on constitution; however a special election was held on 21 February 2012 to remove Ali Abdallah SALIH based on a GCC-mediated deal during the political crisis of 2011 (next election expected in 2014); vice president appointed by the president but position is vacant; prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI elected as a consensus president with about 50% popular participation; no other candidates
Legislative branch:
bicameral legislature consisting of a Shura Council (111 seats; members appointed by the president) and House of Representatives (301 seats; members elected by popular vote in single-member constituencies to serve six-year terms)
elections: last held on 27 April 2003 (scheduled April 2009 election postponed)
election results: House of Representatives percent of vote by party – NA; seats by party – GPC 238, Islah 47, YSP 6, Nasserite Unionist Party 3, National Arab Socialist Ba’th Party 2, independents 5
Judicial branch:
highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the president of the Court, 2 deputies, and nearly 50 judges; court organized into constitutional, civil, commercial, family, administrative, criminal, military, and appeals scrutiny divisions)
judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the Supreme Judicial Council, chaired by the president of the republic and consisting of 10 high-ranking judicial officers; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: appeal courts; district or first instance courts; commercial courts
Political parties and leaders:
General People’s Congress or GPC [Ali Abdallah SALIH, Abd Rabuh Mansur HADI]
Islamic Reform Grouping or Islah [Muhammed Abdallah al-YADUMI, Abdul Wahab al-ANSI]
Nasserite Unionist Party [Sultan al-ATWANI]
Yemeni Socialist Party or YSP [Yasin Said NU’MAN]
note: there are at least seven more active political parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Muslim Brotherhood
Women National Committee
other: conservative tribal groups; Huthis, southern secessionist groups; al-Qa’ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
International organization participation:
Diplomatic representation in the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Adel Ali Ahmed AL-SUNAINI
chancery: 2319 Wyoming Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 965-4760
FAX: [1] (202) 337-2017
Diplomatic representation from the US:
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d’Affaires Karen H. SASAHARA (since July 2013)
embassy: Sa’awan Street, Sanaa
mailing address: P. O. Box 22347, Sanaa
telephone: [967] (1) 755-2000 ext. 2153 or 2266
FAX: [967] (1) 303-182
Flag description:
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and black; the band colors derive from the Arab Liberation flag and represent oppression (black), overcome through bloody struggle (red), to be replaced by a bright future (white)
note: similar to the flag of Syria, which has two green stars in the white band, and of Iraq, which has an Arabic inscription centered in the white band; also similar to the flag of Egypt, which has a heraldic eagle centered in the white band
National symbol(s):
golden eagle
National anthem:
name: “al-qumhuriyatu l-muttahida” (United Republic)
lyrics/music: Abdullah Abdulwahab NOA’MAN/Ayyoab Tarish ABSI
note: adopted 1990; the music first served as the anthem for South Yemen before unification with North Yemen in 1990
Economy ::YEMEN
Economy – overview:
Yemen is a low income country that is highly dependent on declining oil resources for revenue. Petroleum accounts for roughly 25% of GDP and 63% of government revenue. Yemen has tried to counter the effects of its declining oil resources and continuing attacks on its oil pipelines by diversifying its economy through an economic reform program initiated in 2006 that is designed to bolster non-oil sectors of the economy and foreign investment. In October 2009, Yemen exported its first liquefied natural gas as part of this diversification effort. In January 2010, the international community established the Friends of Yemen group that aims to support Yemen’s efforts toward economic and political reform. In 2012, the Friends of Yemen pledged nearly $7 billion in assistance to Yemen. The Yemeni Government also endorsed a Mutual Accountability Framework to facilitate the efficient implementation of donor aid. The unrest that began in early 2011 caused GDP to plunge almost 11% in 2011. Availability of basic services, including electricity, water, and fuel, has improved since the transition, but progress toward achieving more sustainable economic stability has been slow and uneven. Yemen continues to face difficult long-term challenges, including declining water resources, high unemployment, severe food scarcity, and a high population growth rate.
GDP (purchasing power parity):
$61.63 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 89
$58.45 billion (2012 est.)
$57.36 billion (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate):
$43.89 billion (2013 est.)
GDP – real growth rate:
3.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 86
0.1% (2012 est.)
-10.5% (2011 est.)
GDP – per capita (PPP):
$2,500 (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 187
$2,500 (2012 est.)
$2,500 (2011 est.)
note: data are in 2013 US dollars
Gross national saving:
4.2% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 147
9.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
6.3% of GDP (2011 est.)
GDP – composition, by end use:
household consumption: 80.3%
government consumption: 12.5%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: -4%
exports of goods and services: 17.8%
imports of goods and services: -24.9%
(2013 est.)
GDP – composition, by sector of origin:
agriculture: 7.7%
industry: 30.9%
services: 61.4% (2013 est.)
Agriculture – products:
grain, fruits, vegetables, pulses, qat, coffee, cotton; dairy products, livestock (sheep, goats, cattle, camels), poultry; fish
crude oil production and petroleum refining; small-scale production of cotton textiles, leather goods; food processing; handicrafts; aluminum products; cement; commercial ship repair; natural gas production
Industrial production growth rate:
4.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 60
Labor force:
7.1 million (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 63
Labor force – by occupation:
note: most people are employed in agriculture and herding; services, construction, industry, and commerce account for less than one-fourth of the labor force
Unemployment rate:
35% (2003 est.)
country comparison to the world: 188
Population below poverty line:
45.2% (2003)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 30.8% (2005)
Distribution of family income – Gini index:
37.7 (2005)
country comparison to the world: 74
33.4 (1998)
revenues: $7.769 billion
expenditures: $12.31 billion (2013 est.)
Taxes and other revenues:
17.7% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 176
Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-):
-10.3% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 206
Public debt:
47.1% of GDP (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 73
45.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year:
calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
11.8% (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 213
9.9% (2012 est.)
Central bank discount rate:
Commercial bank prime lending rate:
22% (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 12
23% (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of narrow money:
$5.753 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
$5.142 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of broad money:
$14.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
$12.35 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of domestic credit:
$11.2 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 93
$9.576 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:
Current account balance:
-$3.312 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 161
-$985 million (2012 est.)
$6.694 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 105
$7.57 billion (2012 est.)
Exports – commodities:
crude oil, coffee, dried and salted fish, liquefied natural gas
Exports – partners:
China 41%, Thailand 19.2%, India 11.4%, South Korea 4.4% (2013 est.)
$10.97 billion (2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 96
$12.49 billion (2012 est.)
Imports – commodities:
food and live animals, machinery and equipment, chemicals
Imports – partners:
EU 48.8%, UAE 9.8%, Switzerland 8.8%, China 7.4%, India 5.8% (2013 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:
$5.538 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 92
$6.158 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Debt – external:
$7.806 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
$7.419 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment – at home:
Exchange rates:
Yemeni rials (YER) per US dollar –
214.9 (2013 est.)
214.35 (2012 est.)
219.59 (2010 est.)
202.85 (2009)
199.76 (2008)
Energy ::YEMEN
Electricity – production:
7.292 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 106
Electricity – consumption:
5.515 billion kWh (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 111
Electricity – exports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 216
Electricity – imports:
0 kWh (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 217
Electricity – installed generating capacity:
1.53 million kW (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 114
Electricity – from fossil fuels:
100% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 2
Electricity – from nuclear fuels:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 208
Electricity – from hydroelectric plants:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 210
Electricity – from other renewable sources:
0% of total installed capacity (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 143
Crude oil – production:
156,500 bbl/day (2012 est.)
country comparison to the world: 44
Crude oil – exports:
175,200 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Crude oil – imports:
0 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 145
Crude oil – proved reserves:
3 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 31
Refined petroleum products – production:
86,330 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 76
Refined petroleum products – consumption:
177,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Refined petroleum products – exports:
14,330 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 78
Refined petroleum products – imports:
59,050 bbl/day (2010 est.)
country comparison to the world: 62
Natural gas – production:
9.62 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42
Natural gas – consumption:
869.9 million cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 90
Natural gas – exports:
8.75 billion cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 28
Natural gas – imports:
0 cu m (2011 est.)
country comparison to the world: 82
Natural gas – proved reserves:
478.5 billion cu m (1 January 2013 est.)
country comparison to the world: 33
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy:
23.75 million Mt (2011 est.)
Communications ::YEMEN
Telephones – main lines in use:
1.1 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 72
Telephones – mobile cellular:
13.9 million (2012)
country comparison to the world: 60
Telephone system:
general assessment: since unification in 1990, efforts have been made to create a national telecommunications network
domestic: the national network consists of microwave radio relay, cable, tropospheric scatter, GSM and CDMA mobile-cellular telephone systems; fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains low by regional standards
international: country code – 967; landing point for the international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations – 3 Intelsat (2 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region), and 2 Arabsat; microwave radio relay to Saudi Arabia and Djibouti (2006)
Broadcast media:
state-run TV with 2 stations; state-run radio with 2 national radio stations and 5 local stations; stations from Oman and Saudi Arabia can be accessed (2007)
Internet country code:
Internet hosts:
33,206 (2012)
country comparison to the world: 105
Internet users:
2.349 million (2009)
country comparison to the world: 71
Transportation ::YEMEN
57 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 83
Airports – with paved runways:
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports – with unpaved runways:
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 
9 (2013)
gas 641 km; liquid petroleum gas 22 km; oil 1,370 km (2013)
total: 71,300 km
country comparison to the world: 66
paved: 6,200 km
unpaved: 65,100 km (2005)
Merchant marine:
total: 5
country comparison to the world: 126
by type: chemical tanker 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1
registered in other countries: 14 (Moldova 4, Panama 4, Sierra Leone 2, Togo 1, unknown 3) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s): Aden, Al Hudaydah, Al Mukalla
Transportation – note:
the International Maritime Bureau reports offshore waters in the Gulf of Aden are high risk for piracy; numerous vessels, including commercial shipping and pleasure craft, have been attacked and hijacked both at anchor and while underway; crew, passengers, and cargo are held for ransom; the presence of several naval task forces in the Gulf of Aden and additional anti-piracy measures on the part of ship operators reduced the incidence of piracy in that body of water by more than half in 2010
Military ::YEMEN
Military branches:
Land Forces; Naval and Coastal Defense Forces (includes Marines); Air and Air Defense Force (al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya al-Yemeniya); Border Guards; Strategic Reserve Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation:
18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; 2-year service obligation (2012)
Manpower available for military service:
males age 16-49: 5,652,256
females age 16-49: 5,387,160 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:
males age 16-49: 4,056,944
females age 16-49: 4,116,895 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:
male: 287,141
female: 277,612 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures:
4.02% of GDP (2012)
country comparison to the world: 11
3.48% of GDP (2011)
4.02% of GDP (2010)
Military – note:
a Coast Guard was established in 2002
Transnational Issues ::YEMEN
Disputes – international:
Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
refugees (country of origin): 5,740 (Ethiopia) (2013); 233,723 (Somalia) (2014)
IDPs: 309,823 (conflict in Sa’ada governorate; clashes between AQAP and government forces) (2014)
Trafficking in persons:
current situation: Yemen is a source and, to a much lesser extent, transit and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to forced labor and sex trafficking; some Yemeni children, mostly boys, migrate to Yemeni cities or across the border to Saudi Arabia and, less frequently Oman, where they end up as forced laborers in domestic service or small shops, beggars, or prostitutes; some of the large number of child workers in Yemen also face conditions of forced labor; other Yemeni children are conscripted into the government’s armed forces or tribal or rebel militias; to a lesser degree, Yemen is a country of origin for girls trafficked within country or to Saudi Arabia to work as prostitutes in hotels and clubs; additionally, Yemen is a destination and transit country for women and children from the Horn of Africa who are looking for work or have received false job offers in the Gulf states but are subjected to sexual exploitation or forced labor upon arrival; reports indicate that adults and children are still sold or inherited as slaves in Yemen
tier rating: Tier 3 – Yemen does not fully comply with the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking and is not making significant efforts to do so; prolonged political, economic, and security crises impeded the government’s modest anti-trafficking efforts; the government has not instituted formal procedures to identify and protect victims of trafficking or investigate or prosecute officials complicit in trafficking-related crimes; no known efforts have been made to investigate or punish the practice of chattel slavery; the government has taken some steps to prevent the recruitment of children in the armed forces, but it is unclear if efforts have been made to remove child soldiers from the military and provide them with protective or rehabilitative services; no progress has been made in implementing Yemen’s 2008 national action plan on trafficking (2013)
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