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    • Nam Nguyen

      By Nam Nguyen
      Research Fraud and Misconduct<=> In the USA, those proved to have committed fraud are debarred from receiving federal funds for research purposes or from undertaking government-funded therapeutic research. The four Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden) have committees on research dishonesty that investigate all cases of suspected research misconduct. In the United Kingdom, an informal system operated by the pharmaceutical industry, using the disciplinary mechanism of the General Medical Council (GMC), has led to more than 16 doctors in the past ten years being disciplined for having committed research fraud. Editors of many of the world’s leading medical journals have united to form the Committee on Publishing Ethics, which advises doctors on proper practice and assists them in retracting or refusing to publish articles found or known to be false. (See ETHICS; ETHICS COMMITTEES.) Where an author does not o?er a satisfactory explanation, the matter is passed to his or her institution to investigate; where an editor or the committee is not satis?ed with the result they may pass the complaint to the appropriate regulatory body, such as the GMC in Britain.